Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Senior Secondary School 3

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Term: 3rd Term

Week: 6

Class: Senior Secondary School 3

Age: 17 years

Duration: 40 minutes of 2 periods each


Subject:      Marketing

Topic:-       Documents used in export and import trade

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to

  1. Identify the documents used in export and import trade

INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES: Identification, explanation, questions and answers, demonstration, videos from source

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS: Videos, loud speaker, textbook, pictures








The teacher reviews the previous lesson on wholesaler and warehousing

Students pay attention



She discusses some documents used in import trade


Students pay attention and participates



She discusses some documents used in export trade


Students pay attention and participate



The teacher writes a summarized note on the board

The students copy the note in their books




  1. Form M

This is one of the documents for Customs Clearance. It is a mandatory statutory document to be completed by all importers for the importation of goods into Nigeria. This simply implies that without the form, goods can not be approved for importation into Nigeria.

The documentation process is put in place by the Federal Government of Nigeria through the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and the Nigeria Customs Service (NCS). In other words, this document is issued by the CBN through Commercial Banks for import permit procedure. It states the product Harmonized Codes for customs import duty, the amount as well as other basic information.


  1. Bill of Lading or Airway Bill

A bill of lading is just like a ‘receipt’ and it is one of the most important documents for customs clearance purposes. It is a legal document or contract between the carrier and shipper. This document is issued by the shipping company that transport the goods from the ports of loading to destination. The bill of lading contains details of the type, quantity, and destination of goods being carried.

It also carries the information of the shipper, consignee and the notifying party of the imported goods. Details of ports of loading and discharging are included in the document. When a carrier receives a shipment, it is important he obtains a document which must state the details of the shipment, the Shipper, Carrier, Exporter, Consignee and Notify.


  1. Agency Certificate

Without obtaining approvals or certifications from agencies responsible for a related type of consignment, the customs clearance process may not work out well. This type of certificate usually depends on the goods you are importing.

For manufactured goods, SONCAP Certificate will be issued by the Standard Organization of Nigeria. For importation of food items, cosmetics, drugs etc, NAFDAC certificate must be issued. NDLEA and NAFDAC certificates are required for clearing of imported drugs. NESREA certificate is required for customs clearance of second-hand goods.

For more explanation or clarity, you’d need the service of a freight forwarding company for professional guides and advise. They’d explain the exact Agency certificate that will be needed for the shipping process, in order to prepare you for success.


  1. Commercial or Pro Forma Invoice

The Commercial invoices are other documents for Customs Clearance required for ease of passage. It is a monetary value declaration of goods. It is always issued by the seller or the shipper of the goods. This invoice will be needed in two ways. For form M and Pre Arrival Assessment Reports by the customs for import duty.


  1. Insurance Certificate

This is a document indicating the type and amount of insurance coverage in force on a particular shipment. It is used to assure the consignee that insurance is provided to cover loss or damage to cargo during the shipment process. It is needed to cover any loss or damage during shipping of the goods to Nigeria.

For this, you need to approach any reputable insurance company for issuance of the certificate. An insurance certificate will be needed when raising Form M at the banks for imported goods. This certificate is usually needed when raising a Form M for imported goods, at the bank.



  1. Proforma Invoice

A proforma invoice looks a lot like a commercial invoice, and if you complete it correctly, they will be very similar indeed. A proforma invoice specifies the following:

  • The buyer and seller in the transaction.
  • A detailed description of the goods.
  • The Harmonized System classification of those goods.
  • The price.
  • The payment term of the sale, which would typically be expressed as one of the 11 current Incoterms.
  • The delivery details, including how and where the goods will be delivered and how much that will cost.
  • The currency used in the quote, whether it’s U.S. dollars or some other currency.
  1. Certificates of Origin

Some countries require a certificate of origin to identify in what country the goods originated.

  1. Inland Bill of Lading

An inland bill of lading is often the first transportation document required for international shipping created for your export. It can be prepared by the inland carrier or you can create it yourself. It’s a contract of carriage between the exporter and the shipper of the goods that states where the goods are going; it also serves as your receipt that the goods have been picked up.

  1. Ocean Bill of Lading

If your goods are shipping by ocean vessel, you’ll need an ocean bill of lading. An ocean bill of lading can serve as both a contract of carriage and a document of title for the cargo. There are two types:

Straight Bill of Lading

A straight bill of lading is consigned to a specific consignee and is not negotiable. The consignee takes possession of the goods by presenting a signed, original bill of lading to the carrier.

Negotiable Bill of Lading

A negotiable bill of lading is consigned “to order” or “to order of shipper” and is signed by the shipper and sent to a bank in the buyer’s country. The bank holds onto the original bill of lading until the requirements of a documentary collection or a letter of credit have been satisfied.

  1. AIRWAY BILL: This document is used when goods are sent by air. It shows that specified goods have been received for carriage to a named destination.
  2. Dangerous Goods Forms

If your products are considered dangerous goods by either the International Air Transport Association (IATA) or the International Maritime Organization (IMO), you need to include the appropriate dangerous goods form with your shipment. Shipping dangerous goods or hazardous materials can be tricky. Before you do it, the appropriate people at your company need to be trained to properly package, label and document these shipments.   

  1. Bank Draft

A bank draft is an important part of the international sales process for transferring control of the exported goods from the seller in exchange for funds from the buyer. It is often called a documentary collection, because the seller attaches various documents to a bank draft and a cover letter.


EVALUATION:    1. List and explain the documents for import trade

  1. List and explain the documents for export trade

CLASSWORK: As in evaluation

CONCLUSION: The teacher commends the students positively