# Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Senior Secondary 3

Representation of relief forms

TERM – 2ND TERM

WEEK FIVE

Class: Senior Secondary School 3

Age: 17 years

Duration: 40 minutes of 5 periods each

Date:

Subject: Geography

Topic: REPRESENTATION OF RELIEF FORMS

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to

1. Identify relief features shown on maps
2. Describe the methods of representing relief features on maps

INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES: Identification, explanation, questions and answers,

demonstration, videos from source

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS: Videos, loud speaker, textbook, pictures, Map.

INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES

PERIOD 1-2

 PRESENTATION TEACHER’S ACTIVITY STUDENT’S ACTIVITY STEP 1 INTRODUCTION The teacher explains relief to the students and identify the features of relief as indicated on the map provided Students, in small groups -identify relief features shown on maps STEP 2 EXPLANATION Teacher describe the methods of representing relief features on Maps Describe the methods of representing relief features (valley, spur, pass, etc) on maps Individual students draws the various relief features using different methods STEP 3 NOTE TAKING The teacher writes a summarized note on the board The students copy the note in their books

NOTE

REPRESENTATION OF RELIEF FORMS

Relief refers to the variation in elevation and shape of the Earth's surface. It is the difference between the highest and lowest points in a given area, often depicted on maps through contour lines to represent the three-dimensional aspect of the terrain.

Relief features include mountains, valleys, hills, plateaus, and other landforms that contribute to the overall topography of a region.

Relief is a fundamental concept in geography and cartography, providing a visual representation of the physical landscape and aiding in the understanding of the Earth's surface characteristics.

Methods of representing relief features on Maps

Relief features on maps are represented using various methods to convey the three-dimensional aspects of the Earth's surface. Below are some common methods.

1. Contour: Contour lines connect points of equal elevation on the Earth's surface. They form closed loops and indicate the shape and steepness of terrain.

Contour lines help visualize the elevation and relief of the landscape. The closer the lines, the steeper the slope.

1. Form Lines: Similar to contour lines, form lines connect points of equal elevation. They are often used in military maps and focus on specific terrain features.

Form lines provide additional detail about the shape of the land, emphasizing specific features like hills, valleys, or ridges.

1. Bench Mark: Benchmarks are fixed reference points with known elevations. They are often indicated on maps with a symbol and an elevation value.

Benchmarks serve as reference points for height measurement, ensuring consistency in elevation data across different maps or surveys.

1. Hill Shading: Hill shading involves simulating the effects of sunlight on the terrain to create shadows and highlights. It gives a three-dimensional appearance to the landscape. Hill shading enhances the visual representation of relief on maps, making it easier to interpret the topography.
2. Hatchures: Hatchures are short, parallel lines used to indicate the direction and steepness of slopes. They are often applied on the downhill side of hills or mountains.

Hatchures provide a visual cue about the slope direction and gradient, aiding in the interpretation of terrain features.

1. Spot Heights: Numerical values indicating the elevation of specific points on the map. They are often represented by dots or symbols.

Spot heights help users identify key elevation information for specific locations, contributing to a better understanding of the landscape.

1. Trigonometrical Stations: Permanent points established with known coordinates and elevations through trigonometric measurements. They serve as reference points for mapping and surveying.

Trigonometrical stations provide a stable and accurate foundation for mapping, enabling precise measurements and calculations in the field.

EVALUATION: 1. What is relief?

1. Mention 5 relief features found on the map provided
2. Discuss 5 methods of representing relief features on Maps.

CLASSWORK: As in evaluation

CONCLUSION: The teacher commends the students positively