# Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Senior Secondary 3

ARCHITRAVES - CONTD

TERM – 2ND TERM

WEEK FOUR

Class: Senior Secondary School 3

Age: 17 years

Duration: 40 minutes of 5 periods each

Date:

Subject: Technical Drawing

Topic: ARCHITRAVES- CONTD

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to

I.)  Describe and sketch the various types of arches (Segmental, tudor, parabolic, flat Guage)

INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES: Identification, explanation, questions and answers, demonstration, videos from source

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS: Videos, loud speaker, textbook, pictures,

INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES

PERIOD 1-2

 PRESENTATION TEACHER’S ACTIVITY STUDENT’S ACTIVITY STEP 1 INTRODUCTION The e teacher guide students to sketch the various types of arches(Segmental, Tudor, parabolic flat Guage) Students listens attentively to the teacher and participate actively . STEP 2 NOTE TAKING The teacher writes a summarized note on the board The students copy the note in their books

NOTE

ARCHITRAVES- CONTD

Tudor

Tudor typically refers to the Tudor arch, a distinctive architectural feature commonly found in Tudor-style buildings.

To construct a Tudor arch:

1. Determine the width of the arch span and mark its endpoints.
2. Decide the height of the arch rise, typically measured from the base of the arch to its apex.
3. Using a compass, draw a circle centered at the base of the arch with a radius equal to half of the span.
4. At the top of the circle, mark the point where the apex of the arch will be.
5. Draw a vertical line from the center of the circle to the top, dividing the circle into two equal halves.
6. Connect the endpoints of the span to the top of the circle along the bisected line, forming the Tudor arch shape.
7. Refine the arch shape as needed to ensure it accurately resembles a Tudor arch. Tudor arches are typically wide at the base and narrow towards the apex, with a slightly flattened or depressed curve.
8. Add any desired details or decorations to the Tudor arch, such as moldings, carvings, or ornamental elements characteristic of Tudor-style architecture.

Segmental

Segmental typically refers to a curved or arched structure composed of individual segments or blocks. These segments are usually designed to fit together seamlessly to form the desired curve or arch.

Methods of construction

Methods of construction for segmental structures can vary depending on the materials used and the specific design requirements, but here are some common approaches:

1. Brick or Masonry Segmental Construction: This involves laying individual bricks or masonry blocks in a curved pattern to form the segmental structure. The key is ensuring that each segment is properly shaped and sized to fit together without gaps.
2. Steel Segmental Construction: Steel segments can be fabricated off-site and then assembled on-site to form the segmental structure. These segments are often welded or bolted together to create the desired curvature.
3. Timber Segmental Construction: Timber segments can be cut and shaped to fit together to form curved or arched structures. Techniques such as laminating or bending may be used to achieve the desired curvature in the timber segments.

Parabolic

Parabolic typically refers to a curve that follows the shape of a parabola, which is a type of mathematical curve. Parabolic structures are often used in architecture and engineering for their aesthetic appeal and structural efficiency.

Methods of construction

Methods of construction for parabolic structures can vary depending on the materials used and the specific design requirements, but here are some common approaches:

1. Reinforced Concrete Construction: Parabolic structures can be constructed using reinforced concrete. Formwork is used to shape the concrete into the desired parabolic curve, and reinforcing steel bars are placed within the concrete to provide additional strength and support.
2. Steel Construction: Parabolic structures can also be constructed using steel. Steel beams and columns can be fabricated and assembled on-site to form the framework of the parabolic structure. Steel plates may be used to create the curved surfaces of the structure.
3. Timber Construction: Timber can be used to construct parabolic structures, particularly for smaller-scale projects or temporary structures. Timber beams can be bent or laminated to achieve the desired curvature, and they can be assembled on-site to form the parabolic shape.

Flat guage

Flat gauge typically refers to a measurement taken on a flat surface to determine the dimensions of an object or a component. It's often used in manufacturing and engineering to ensure accuracy and precision in the construction of parts and assemblies.

Methods of construction

Methods of construction for flat gauge can vary depending on the specific application and the materials involved.

1. Measurement Tools: The most basic method of constructing a flat gauge involves using measurement tools such as rulers, calipers, micrometers, or vernier gauges to measure the dimensions of the object or component directly on a flat surface. These measurements are then recorded on a technical drawing or specification sheet.
2. Templates: Templates or patterns can be created from flat sheets of material, such as paper, cardboard, or thin metal, that are cut or formed to match the desired shape and dimensions of the object or component. These templates can then be used to transfer the shape and dimensions onto the workpiece for construction.
3. Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Software: CAD software allows engineers and designers to create detailed technical drawings and 3D models of objects and components. Flat gauges can be generated directly within CAD software by defining the dimensions and geometry of the object or component.

EVALUATION: 1. Identify and construct the following arches.

CLASSWORK: As in evaluation

CONCLUSION: The teacher commends the students positively