Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Senior Secondary School 3

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Term: 2nd Term

Week: 4

Class: Senior Secondary School 3

Age: 17 years

Duration: 40 minutes of 2 periods each


Subject:    Agriculture

Topic:-      Agricultural extension II

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to

  1. Discuss the methods of disseminating new ideas and techniques to farmers
  2. State the qualities, roles and problems faced by agricultural extension officers

INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES: Identification, explanation, questions and answers, demonstration, videos from source

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS: Videos, loud speaker, textbook, pictures








The teacher reviews the previous lesson on agricultural extension

Students pay attention



She discusses the methods of disseminating new ideas and techniques to farmers

Students pay attention and participates



She states qualities, roles and problems faced by the agricultural extension officer



Students pay attention and participate



The teacher writes a summarized note on the board

The students copy the note in their books




  1. Individual method

The individual method includes farm and home visits, aimed at direct contact between farmers and the extension agents. The purpose is to give advice or assistance on a wide range of farm and home problems

Examples of individual methods of disseminating ideas and innovations include

(i) home of the farmer

(ii) office or farm

(iii) telephone call

(iv) correspondence

(v) result demonstration.


Advantages of individual method

  1. It gives and obtains information that will be useful to farmers and / or


  1. More attention is given to the individual farmers than any other method
  2. It may involve the use of telephone which makes information dissemination faster


Disadvantages of individual method

  1. It is a time-consuming method
  2. It is also a very tedious method
  3. Extension agent cannot reach many farmers
  4. It may be very expensive e.g. telephone calls


  1. Group Method

The group method involves the working together will groups of farmers under the supervision of the extension worker(s).

Examples of group methods include:

(i) symposia

(ii) lectures

(iii) debates

(iv) Group discussion

(v) excursions

(vi) field trips

(vii) group demonstration plots

(viii) agricultural show.


 Advantages of group method

  1. It enables extension workers to reach out to many farmers at a time
  2. It saves time and money
  3. It is not as tedious as in the case of individual method
  4. Farmers tend to show more interest in what may be introduced


Disadvantages of group method

  1. Some member of the group may easily discourage others
  2. Extension agent may not always find all members of the group to be present all the time
  3. Extension officers may not be enough to carry out their jobs in many groups


  1. Mass media

Mass media involve the dissemination of information through special media of communication to the farmers. Mass media include the use of radio, television, newspapers, film shows, pamphlets, banners, handbills and hand-outs.

 Types of mass media

  • Electronic media: This involves the use of electronics like, radio, television, film show, etc. to disseminate information to farmers. Through the electronic media, many people can easily be reached if only they have the means. It is an expensive method by which farmers can easily be contacted.
  • Print media: This involves the use of media like newspapers, banners, handbills newsletters, hand-outs, pamphlets, etc. to disseminate information to people. Just like the electronic media, information can get to many people but illiteracy, combined with poverty would prevent many people from getting the desired information.


Advantages of mass media

  1. They can reach out to a large audience provided it is within means
  2. They may not require the presence of extension agents
  3. The new techniques and innovation can easily reach the farmer at a fixed date and time e.g. either on radio or television
  4. Time wasting and stress involved in going round the farmers are eliminated
  5. Farmers can put the new ideas to use by themselves
  6. The information, especially print media last long
  7. The printed information can be posted or received by mail
  8. Pictures (in electronic) can easily be served as teaching aids
  9. It is useful in information dissemination to deaf but literate famers.


Disadvantages of mass media

  1. They are very expensive to operate e.g. talks on radio or television
  2. They are only useful to the educated farmers; illiterate farmers can never benefit
  3. They are only available to farmers who are wealthy enough to own television and radio sets
  4. Farmers may find it difficult to ask questions on matters which they do not


Qualities of a good extension worker

  1. Originality: For an extension officer or worker to succeed he must have the native intelligence to be original in his thoughts, words and action
  2. Leadership: He must be able to know the way i.e. his goal and lead the rural farmers to grasp and embrace that goal.
  3. Initiative: A good extension worker must have initiative to tackle problems himself before referring them to supervisors. He must be able to take steps without being directed
  4. Organizational ability: The success of any extension activity will depend on how it is planned, organized and executed. He should be able to organize training of leaders
  5. Problem solving ability: A good extension worker must be able to recognize problems, define them in simple terms and solve them if they fall within his training and experience
  6. Clear judgment: He must possess great foresight, he must be able to appreciate the problems of the farmers on the ground and know what to do to solve them
  7. Reliability/honesty: An extension worker must be reliable, a man of his words. If the agency sends him down to the rural area, he should go down to deliver the piece of information and bring back feedback. If the rural farmers discover that he is reliable, they can then assimilate the new innovation and research findings
  8. Communication skill: An excellent extension worker must possess good communication skills e.g. good command of local language, boldness and oratorical abilities
  9. Freedom from local politics: A good extension worker must not be involved in the local polities so as to win the confidence of all members of the target group
  10. Respect for culture and traditions: He must be a good mixer for him to succeed. He must be able to come down to their level. He should dress like them, eat whatever they present, possibly drink their water, while not losing his goal for doing all these. By these wise behavior he will win the hearts of the rural farmers. He should not feel superior to the farmers so as to achieve his goal. He must be approachable
  11. Technical knowledge: With sound training, an extension worker must be able to impact knowledge. He should be able to motivate these adult learners to acquire knowledge
  12. Punctuality and availability: He should be able to attend all pre-arranged meeting, seminars, workshops, etc. promptly and always make himself available


Roles of an extension worker

  1. He provides agricultural consultancy services
  2. He plans and executes programmes
  3. He organizes and supervises farmers’ groups
  4. He conducts and organizes training for farmers
  5. He liaise with other agencies
  6. He assist in improving farmers’ outlook
  7. He acts as intermediary between researchers and farmers
  8. He teaches farming practices
  9. He evaluates extension programmes
  10. He supervises agricultural loans usage
  11. He locates marketing channels
  12. He sources for farm input
  13. He sources for farm loans



  1. High level of farmers’ illiteracy
  2. Absence of credit facilities
  3. Insufficient motivation of extension agent
  4. Inadequate resources
  5. Unfavorable attitude of farmers
  6. Inadequate trained extension agents
  7. Uncoordinated efforts by government agencies
  8. Poor transportation network
  9. Inadequate evaluation machinery
  10. Non-involvement of farmers in planning programmes
  11. Language barriers
  12. Inadequate publicity

EVALUATION:   1. Discuss the methods of disseminating new ideas and                                    techniques to farmers

  1. State the qualities, roles and problems faced by                              agricultural extension officers

CLASSWORK: As in evaluation

CONCLUSION: The teacher commends the students positively