Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Senior Secondary School 3

Browse through topics for Senior Secondary 3 1st, 2nd and 3rd Terms, All Weeks, All Subjects

Term: 2nd Term

Week: 1

Class: Senior Secondary School 3

Age: 17 years

Duration: 40 minutes of 2 periods each


Subject:    Commerce

Topic:-      Introduction to marketing

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to

  1. Define marketing
  2. State the functions of marketing
  3. Discuss the importance of marketing
  4. Outline the types of market
  5. Define Marketing concept
  6. Discuss the components of the marketing concept
  7. Explain what a product and product mix is

INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES: Identification, explanation, questions and answers, demonstration, videos from source

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS: Videos, loud speaker, textbook, pictures








The teacher reviews the previous lesson on business environment

Students pay attention



She explains marketing and states the functions and importance of marketing

She outline the types of market and defines the Marketing concept


Students pay attention and participates



She discusses the components of the marketing concept

She further explains what a product and product mix is


Students pay attention and participate



The teacher writes a summarized note on the board

The students copy the note in their books




Marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating,

communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for

customers, clients, partners, and society at large.



  1. Promotion
  2. Selling
  3. Product management
  4. marketing information management
  5. Pricing
  6. financing
  7. Distribution



  1. Increase brand awareness.
  2. Generate high-quality leads.
  3. Acquire new customers.
  4. Increase website traffic.
  5. Establish industry authority.
  6. Increase customer value.
  7. Boost brand engagement.
  8. Increase revenue.
  9. Improve internal brand.


The marketing concept is the use of marketing data to focus on the needs

and wants of customers in order to develop marketing strategies that not

only satisfy the needs of the customers but also the accomplish the goals

of the organization.


A market is defined as the sum total of all the buyers and sellers in the area

or region under consideration. The area may be the earth, or countries,

regions, states, or cities. The value, cost and price of items traded are as

per forces of supply and demand in a market.



  1. Physical Markets. Any physical market is a place where buyers and

sellers physically meet that involve both parties in a transaction in

exchange for money.  Few good examples are departmental stores,

shopping malls and retail stores


  1. Virtual Markets / Internet Markets. Today’s business environment such

type of markets are increasing on a fast track. It is a place where the seller

offers goods and services via online platform i.e. internet. Buyers and

sellers are not required to physically meet or interact. Examples are

Freelancer.com, Amazon.com etc


  1. Auction Market. An auction market is a place where sellers and buyers

indicate the lowest and highest prices they are willing to exchange. This

exchange takes place when both the sellers and buyers agree on a price. A

good example is the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), The Nigeria Stock

Exchange(NSE) etc


  1. Consumer Markets. This market type means the marketing of

consumer goods and services for personal and family consumption.

Consumer market examples are

  • fast moving consumer goods are ready to cock meals and newspaper, magazines etc.,
  • consumer durables goods are fridge, televisions, personal computers etc.,
  • soft goods are shoes and clothes and

services include hoteling, hairdressing, schools and colleges etc

  1. Industrial Markets. The industrial market involves business to business

sales of goods and services. These marketers do not target consumer

markets. Some examples of the industrial market include

  • Finish goods like office furniture,
  • Selling raw materials for businesses i.e. gasses and chemicals
  • Offering services to businesses2business for example security agencies, auditing and legal services etc.


  1. Black Market. Just like black money, black market deals in illegal drugs

and weapons.


  1. Market for Intermediate Goods. These markets dealing in selling raw

materials that need further processing to produce finish goods.


  1. Financial Market. This is a broad market known as a financial market.

This is a place for dealing with liquid assets for example shares, bonds etc.



The marketing mix describes the specific combination of marketing

elements used to achieve the marketing objectives and satisfy the target


It is the term that is used to describe the combination of the four inputs that

constitutes the core of a company’s marketing system, the product, the

price, the promotional activities and the distribution system.

In his book, Basic marketing, a managerial approach, Mc. Cathy refer to

four key variables in marketing as “the four Ps”. These are the four key

marketing program, which can create demand and increase the sales of



  1. Product

This represents an item or service designed to satisfy customer needs and

wants. To effectively market a product or service, it's important to identify

what differentiates it from competing products or services. It's also

important to determine if other products or services can be marketed in

conjunction with it.


  1. Price

The sale price of the product reflects what consumers are willing to pay for

  1. Marketing professionals need to consider costs related to research and

development, manufacturing, marketing, and distribution—otherwise known

as cost-based pricing. Pricing based primarily on consumers' perceived

quality or value is known as value-based pricing.

Value-based pricing plays a key role in products that are considered to be

status symbols.


  1. Place

When determining areas of distribution, it's important to consider the type

of product sold. Basic consumer products, such as paper goods, often are

readily available in many stores. Premium consumer products, however,

typically are available only in select stores.


  1. Promotion

Joint marketing campaigns are called a promotional mix. Activities might

include advertising, sales promotion, personal selling, and public

relations. One key consideration is the budget assigned to the marketing

mix. Marketing professionals carefully construct a message that often

incorporates details from the other three Ps when trying to reach their

target audience. Determination of the best mediums to communicate the

message and decisions about the frequency of the communication also are




A product is a set of tangible physical attributes assembled in an

identifiable form, which the buyer may account as offering want for

satisfaction e.g. shoes.

Product mix is a marketing decision on product which lay emphasis on

quality, style, brand name, packaging and durability in order to boost sales.


EVALUATION:   1. Define marketing

  1. State the functions of marketing
  2. Discuss the importance of marketing
  3. Outline the types of market
  4. Define Marketing concept
  5. Discuss the components of the marketing concept
  6. Explain what a product and product mix is

CLASSWORK: As in evaluation

CONCLUSION: The teacher commends the students positively