Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Senior Secondary School 3

Browse through topics for Senior Secondary 3 1st, 2nd and 3rd Terms, All Weeks, All Subjects

Term: 1st Term

Week: 6

Class: Senior Secondary School 3

Age: 17 years

Duration: 40 minutes of 2 periods each


Subject:    Agriculture

Topic:-      Farm records and account

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to

  1. Define farm records
  2. State the purpose of farm records
  3. Mention and explain the types of farm records
  4. Explain the meaning of farm account
  5. State the purpose of farm account
  6. Mention and explain the types of farm account

INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES: Identification, explanation, questions and answers, demonstration, videos from source

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS: Videos, loud speaker, textbook, pictures








The teacher reviews the previous lesson on agricultural insurance

Students pay attention



She defines what farm records are.

She further states the purpose of farm records

She then mentions and explains the types of farm records


Students pay attention and participates



She defines what farm accounts are.

She further states the purpose of farm accounts

She then mentions and explains the types of farm accounts


Students pay attention and participate



The teacher writes a summarized note on the board

The students copy the note in their books




The registers in which the farm resources, farm products, and day-to-day maintenance of farm production and financial activities of a farm are recorded systematically or chronologically are called farm records.



  1. to determine the financial state of the farm at each point in time
  2. as a tool to apply for and obtain credit facilities from government or banks
  3. for the purpose of future planning
  4. to mitigate against unnecessary losses via fraud and other means
  5. to make critical decisions about the farm



  1. Farm Diary
    A farm diary records the different farm operations and when they are
    carried out daily and throughout the year.
  2. Farm Inventory
    Farm inventory is a detailed list of all items on the farm including household goods, furniture etc.
  3. Consumption Records
    When a farmer is engaged in a fattening operation, he needs a different type of livestock record. In his case, he should keep a record on each animal. His record notebook should show the weight on the date he begins to feed the animals and the weight on the date he stops feeding
    Then He can then have a measurement of how well the animals have grown over the period of fattening.

The farmer may also use some of the farm produce for home consumption. This should also be recorded. The value of what has been consumed in the household should be the cost of these items if they were to be bought in the open market.

  1. Input Records
    The book should carry the type of crop on each plot showing the plot size
    and the identification or number of the plot, the date of planting as well
    as the amount of seed or planting materials used. Other inputs to be
    recorded include amount of fertilizer, and herbicide applied, cost of spraying with insecticides and the quantity used and cultural operations such as the number of hand weeding that were carried out, the number of labourers used as well as their wages.
  2. Production Records
    For crops, their yields are rended for each plot after harvest. For the
    rice crop, both the paddy rice weight as well as the weight of the milled rice are recorded. These figures will give the farmer an idea of the efficiency of his rice mill.
    In a good livestock farm, let’s say in a poultry farm for instance, the farmer may want to know how many birds he has in lay, how many eggs he obtains in a day how much food the birds eat in a day to produce that number of eggs, and how many birds survive from day to day or from week to week.
    These records help to check stealing of animals and also lets the farmer know of births and issues due to diseases.

A separate record should be kept for each farm stock

  1. Sales Records/Profit and Loss Account
    A farmer has to keep a simple account book of his sales and receipts as well as his expenses and purchases. Each time he buys or sells anything, he should record the date, the details of the operations as well as the amount involved.



Farm Accounts are a statement of money paid out or received for goods and services in a farming business. Money is received due to sales of farm produce or loans from other sources while money is paid out for purchases of farm produce or settlement of debts.



  1. it shows the financial state of the farm
  2. it positions the farm for external support or funding from government, banks or private firms
  3. it helps in making administrative and management decisions
  4. it helps to monitor the changes in the prices of items bought or sold on the farm


  1. Sales account- A sales account contains the record of all sales transactions. This includes both cash sales and credit sales
  2. Purchase account- The purchases account is a general ledger account in which is recorded the inventory purchases of a business. This account is used to calculate the amount of inventory available for sale in a periodic inventory system
  3. Farm Valuation- This means the price as of the appraisal date a buyer willing, but not obligated, to buy would pay for a farm or ranch unit with land comparable in quality and composition to the subject property, but located in the nearest location where profitable farming or ranching is feasible
  4. Balance sheet- A balance sheet is a financial statement that communicates the so-called “book value” of a farm, as calculated by subtracting all of the company's liabilities and shareholder equity from its total assets
  5. Farm income statement- A farm income statement (sometimes called a profit and loss statement) is a summary of income and expenses that occurred during a specified accounting period, usually the calendar year for farmers.
  6. cash analysis account- A cash flow analysis determines a farm’s working capital — the amount of money available to run business operations and complete transactions. That is calculated as current assets (cash or near-cash assets, like notes receivable) minus current liabilities (liabilities due during the upcoming accounting period).
  7. profit and loss account- A profit and loss account shows a farm’s revenue and expenses over a particular period of time, typically either one month or consolidated months over a year. These figures show whether your business has made a profit or a loss over that time period.

EVALUATION:   1. Define farm records

  1. State the purpose of farm records
  2. Mention and explain the types of farm records
  3. Explain the meaning of farm account
  4. State the purpose of farm account
  5. Mention and explain the types of farm account

CLASSWORK: As in evaluation

CONCLUSION: The teacher commends the students positively