Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Senior Secondary School 3

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Term: 1st Term

Week: 10

Class: Senior Secondary School 3

Age: 17 years

Duration: 40 minutes of 2 periods each


Subject:    Agriculture

Topic:-      Animal health management

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to

  1. List some animal diseases
  2. State the symptoms, animals affected, methods of transmission and how to control some animal disease

INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES: Identification, explanation, questions and answers, demonstration, videos from source

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS: Videos, loud speaker, textbook, pictures








The teacher reviews the previous lesson on animal health improvement

Students pay attention



She lists some animal diseases


Students pay attention and participates



She states the symptoms, animals affected, methods of transmission and how to control some animal disease


Students pay attention and participate



The teacher writes a summarized note on the board

The students copy the note in their books





  1. Foot and Mouth Disease

Animals affected

They include cattle, sheep and goat.

Causal Organism

It is caused by a virus.


(i) Formation of blisters on the mucous membrane of the mouth and the skin; between and around the hoofs 

(ii) inflammation of teats and udder

(iii) salivation

(iv) lameness

(v) loss of weight

Method of transmission

(i) through infected materials like urine, faeces, milk

(ii) mechanical means by farmers.



  1. isolation of infected animals
  2. burning or burying contaminated materials
  3. regular vaccination.


  1. Rinder Pest Disease or Cattle Plague

Animals affected

cattle, sheep and goat.

Casual organism

it is caused by virus.


(i) high fever

(ii) weakness

(iii) difficult breathing

(v) blood stained diarrhea

(vi) high mortality 

(vii) loss of appetite and weight.

Method of Transmission

(i) direct contact

(ii) contaminated feed and water

(iii) contaminated faeces and urine.


(i) regular vaccination

(ii) isolation of infected animals

(iii) restriction of infected animals’ movement within the farm.


  1. Newcastle disease

Animals affected

domestic fowl, turkey, ducks, goose and guinea fowl.

Causal organism

It is caused by a virus


(i) Respiratory symptoms include sneezing, coughing, nasal discharge and difficulty in breathing. 

(ii) Nervous symptoms include paralysis, muscular tremor, somersaulting and cycling movements. 

(iii) Digestive symptoms include: lack of appetite and diarrhea.

Method of Transmission

(i) through contaminated feed, water, breeds and litter.


(i) vaccination

(ii) proper sanitation

(iii) disinfection of poultry building

(iv) burning and burying of infected birds.



  1. Anthrax

Animal organism

It is caused by a bacterium called Bacillus anthraxis.


(i) High fever 

(ii) depression 

(iii) blood oozes from nose, mouth and anus of carcass 

(iv) lack of appetite 

(v) loss of weight 

(vi) Staggering and sudden death of animals.

Method of transmission

Through contaminated feed, water, equipment and infected animals.


(i) Regular vaccination

(ii) proper sanitation

(iii) isolation of infected animals.


  1. Brucellosis or Contagious Abortion

Animals affected

Pigs, cattle, sheep and goat

Causal organism

it is caused by a bacterium called brucella abortus or brucella spp.


(i) high fever 

(ii) diarrhea and dysentery 

(iii) posterior paralysis 

(iv) wobbling gait 

(v) pre-mature abortions 

(vi) still-birth 

(vii) retention of the after birth (placenta) 

(viii) infertility of male animal 

(ix) reduction in milk production and inflammation of scrotum 

(x) inflammation of uterus (womb).

Method of transmission

Through contaminated feed, water, infected animals, etc.


(i) isolation of infected animals

(ii) proper sanitation

(iii) regular vaccination.


  1. Tuberculosis

Animals affected

Cattle, poultry birds, pigs and sheep.

Causal organism

it is caused by bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis


(i) difficult breathing

(ii) constant coughing

(iii) loss of weight and appetite 

(iv) emaciation 

(v) paled combs and wattles

(vi) high mortality 

(vii) milk reduction 

(viii) soft and moist cough.

Method of transmission

(i) through contaminated water, feed, litters and dropping.


(i) Regular vaccination

(ii) slaughter infected animals

(iii) proper sanitation 

(iv) isolation of infected animals.



  1. Aspergilosis

Animals affected

Poultry birds, pigs and cattle.

Causal organism

it is caused by a fungus (Aspergillus fumigates)


(i) difficult breathing 

(ii) loss of appetite 

(iii) skin irritation 

(iv) respiratory disorder 

(v) high body temperature 

(vi) loss of weight 

(v) high body temperature                  

(vi) loss of weight (emaciation) 

Method of transmission

Through contaminated feed (mouldy feed), mouldy litter and contaminated incubator


(i) regular disinfection of pens and equipment

(ii) avoid the use of mouldy feed and litter

(iii) practice good sanitation and hygiene 

(iv) spray with fungicides to prevent the growth of fungi spores.


  1. Ringworm

Animals affected

These are pigs, sheep, goat, cattle, rabbit

Causal organism

it is caused by a fungus.


(i) lesions on the skin of farm animals 

(ii) skin irritation 

(iii) loss of appetite and weight

Method of transmission

This may be through infected animals, contact with infected brushes, feeders and drinkers.


(i) disinfection of all pens and equipment 

(ii) infected parts of animals should be treated every two to six days with mixture of sulphur and Vaseline 

(iii) old scabby area can be scrapped off and iodine solution applied.



  1. Trypanosomiasis

Animals affected

Resistant breeds of cattle are N’Dama, Muturu and keteku.  While susceptible breeds are White Fulani, Red Bororo, Kuri Chad, Sokoto Gudali and Boran.

Causal organism

It is caused by a protozoan called trypanosome spp, e.g., trypanosome vivax, T.congolensis, T.gambiensi.


(i) rise in body temperature 

(ii) dullness in appearance             

(iii) anaemia 

(iv) sleepiness 

(v) nervous disorder leading to paralysis and death                

(vi) weakness 

(vii) loss of weight 

(viii) loss of appetite.

Method of transmission: 

The disease is spread by blood sucking tsetse fly (Glossina spp) which may such blood from an infected animal and transmit the pathogens to a healthy animal.


(i) clearing of bush around the farm in order to remove the fly’s habitat.   

(ii) spraying with insecticides to kill vector (tsetse fly). 

(iii) Treatment of infected animals with drugs such as trypanosomide and antimosan. 

(iv) Eradication of wild species or animal carriers in and around the ranch or pasture.

(v) Isolating affected animals. 

(vi) Biological control of insect vectors.


  1. Coccidiosis

Animals affected

These are domestic fowl, turkey, duck, goose, rabbit, etc.

Causal organism

It is caused by the protozoa (Eimera spp).


(i) dropping wings

(ii) loss of appetite 

(iii) blood stained diarrhea 

(iv) emaciation

(v) high mortality

(vi) dullness and unthriftiness

(vii) loss of hair or acopecia (in rabbits) 

(viii) rough feathers

(ix) huddling (crowding together).


(i) practice proper sanitation. 

(ii) Avoid wet litters and feed. 

(iii) Changing of water sued and general disinfection

(iv) use suitable drugs such as amprolium, nitrofurazone or sulphaquinoxaline in water.


  1. Red Water Fever (Piroplasmosis)

Animal affected

These are sheep, goat, cattle and pig.

Causal organism

It is caused by a protozoan called babesia spp.


(i) rise in body temperature 

(ii) loss of appetite 

(iii) diarrhea 

(iv) pale red colour of urine 

(v) emaciation and death.

Method of transmission

It is transmitted through the bite of infected animal by a vector called blue tick.


(i) Spray with insecticides to kill the vector of disease (blue tick)

(ii) Inject animal with drugs like trypan blue, babesan or acaprin.


EVALUATION:   1. Explain the meaning and causes of livestock diseases

  1. State the economic importance of animal diseases
  2. State the factors that determine the degree to which an animal is resistant to a disease
  3. Discuss the factors that could pre-dispose animals to disease

CLASSWORK: As in evaluation

CONCLUSION: The teacher commends the students positively