Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Senior Secondary School 2

Browse through topics for Senior Secondary 2 1st, 2nd and 3rd Terms, All Weeks, All Subjects

Term: 3rd Term

Week: 6

Class: Senior Secondary School 2

Age: 16 years

Duration: 40 minutes of 2 periods each


Subject:    Agriculture

Topic:-      Animal nutrition

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to

  1. Explain the meaning of animal nutrition
  2. Outline the classes of livestock feed
  3. Highlight the preparation process of feed ingredients
  4. Discuss the food nutrient of livestock

INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES: Identification, explanation, questions and answers, demonstration, videos from source

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS: Videos, loud speaker, textbook, pictures








The teacher reviews the previous lesson on livestock management

Students pay attention



She explains the meaning of animal nutrition. She outlines the classes of livestock feed

Students pay attention and participates



She highlights the preparation process of feed ingredients

She further discusses the food nutrient of livestock

Students pay attention and participate



The teacher writes a summarized note on the board

The students copy the note in their books




It is the ability to feed farm animals. The food given to farm animals is called feed and farm animals need food for growth, repair of worn-out tissues energy and general well-being of the animals.



These are feed that have crude fiber content less than 18% high in energy, or carbohydrate, low in protein, highly digestible and low in minerals.



They are feed that have crude fibre content less than 18%, high in protein, low in carbohydrates, highly digestible and low in minerals.



They are required in small quantity in feed, they supplement basal and protein concentrates. They are low in energy, protein and fibre, high in minerals and vitamins, necessary for growth and development. They largely aid in digestion of food, aid resistance to diseases.



They are feed that are high in fibre (more than 18%), low in digestible carbohydrate, low in protein, have low digestibility, they exist in different forms (hay, straw, soilage and silage). Hay and straw are referred as dry roughages.



  1. Bone Meal: Bone meal can be prepared in two ways
  2. Dry Process: Collect bone from the abattoir, then dry and burn them then crush to desired texture.
  3. Wet Process: Collect Bones, heat with steam then crush and dry.
  4. Blood Meal: Collect blood from the abattoir and allow to clot in an open then heat to remove water and kill germs then heap to dry and crush into powder.
  5. Fish Meal: Fish meal can be prepared by heating with steam then dry and crush or by sundrying or smoking to remove moisture and ground into power. 
  6. Palm Kernel Cake/Groundnut Cake: Collect the seeds of groundnut/Palm kernel, crush and press to remove the oil and the reminants are pressed with machine to form cake which is dried.
  7. Maize/Guinea Corn Meal: Remove grains from cobs, dry and crush or grind to desired texture.



  1. Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates is made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen

Sources are maize, guinea corn, cassava, millet, yam, rice, potatoes, cocoyam, plantain, forage grasses, hay, silage, spent grain etc.

It provides energy to farm animals for growth, reproduction, milk production and other activities.


  1. Proteins: They are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and sometimes sulphur, nitrogen and phosphorus.

Sources – Animal’s sources are fish meal, blood meal, meat meal, skimmed milk powder etc. Plant sources includes soya beans meal, groundnut cake, palm kernel cake, cotton seed cake, sun flower seed meal, leguminous forage etc.

They are essential for the repair of worn-out tissues, essential for the growth of young ones, used in gamete formation, aid milk, meat and egg production in animals, required for the production of enzymes and hormones in the body, helps to sustain life, needed for flesh build-up etc.


  1. Fats and Oil: They are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

Sources are palm oil palm kernel cake, groundnut cake, coconut meals linseed cake, cotton seed cake milk, lard etc.

They provide more energy than carbohydrates, supply essential fatty acids and fat build-up, provide fat solute vitamins, improve the pleasant taste of diet and helps to maintain body temperature


  1. Minerals: There are two types of mineral required by animal,
  2. Macro element or mineral which are those minerals required by animals in large quantity e.g. calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium sulphur, sodium and chlorine.
  3. Micro or Trace element: They are those minerals required by animals in small quantity e.g. lion, iodine, cobalt, copper, manganese, zinc and fluorine.

Sources: These are bone meal, oyster shell, limestone, salt licks. 

  1. Vitamins: Vitamins are organic substance also required by animals for proper growth and development of the body. Vitamins are grouped into two major classes.
  2. Fats soluble vitamins: These are vitamins that are soluble in fats e.g. vitamins A, B, E and K
  3. Water soluble vitamins: These are vitamins that are soluble in water e.g. vitamins C and B complex. Members of Vitamins B. complex include Thiamine, riboflavin, niaan, pyridoxine, cabalomine, pantothenic acid and folic acid.

Sources: Fish meal grasses, yellow maize


  1. Water: Water is very important in livestock management, be it to the animals or to their immediate environment. 

Sources of Water

Drinking water, from tap, metabolic water from food, rain water, water from rivers and ponds, grasses and fresh fodder.

Functions of Water

  1. Water is provided for drinking purposes
  2. It is used for metabolic and digestion of food
  3. Water is also used for dipping drending animals against ectoprasetes and endoparasites.
  4. Water is equally used for washing or cleaning animals
  5. It  helps to maintain body turgidity
  6. It is a solvent for most body nutrients
  7. Water is involved in the production of saliva
  8. It helps to get rid of waste products from the body
  9. Water is used for irrigation of pasture
  10. It helps to maintain body temperature.
  11. Water is part of the body of any animal, it contains 55-65% of body weight

EVALUATION:   1. Explain the meaning of animal nutrition

  1. Outline the classes of livestock feed
  2. Highlight the preparation process of feed ingredients
  3. Discuss the food nutrient of livestock

CLASSWORK: As in evaluation

CONCLUSION: The teacher commends the students positively