Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Senior Secondary School 1

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Term: 3rd Term

Week: 3

Class: Senior Secondary School 1

Age: 15 years

Duration: 40 minutes of 2 periods each


Subject:    Agriculture

Topic:-      Farm machinery and equipment, uses and maintenance III

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to

  1. Define farm machinery
  2. Give examples of farm machinery, state their uses and how to maintain them

INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES: Identification, explanation, questions and answers, demonstration, videos from source

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS: Videos, loud speaker, textbook, pictures








The teacher reviews the previous lesson on farm machinery and equipment

Students pay attention



She defines farm machinery and equipment


Students pay attention and participates



She gives examples of farm machinery, states their uses and describes how they can be maintained

Students pay attention and participate



The teacher writes a summarized note on the board

The students copy the note in their books





The spring-tine cultivator or simply harrow is also a secondary tillage implement used for land preparation. This implement can be used immediately after ploughing and before harrowing or ridging. 

Functions/Uses of spring – tine Cultivator

  1. It helps to break down large soil lumps or clods which remain after ploughing.
  2. It aids weed combining, i.e, removal of weeds from soil surface.
  3. It helps in dragging of roots and stones out of the soil.
  4. It can also be used for weeding and fertilizing.
  5. It helps to stir the soil without turning it over.



The ridger is a secondary soil cultivation implement used for land preparation. The ridger is used after harrow and before planter.  There are two mains types of ridgers: disc and moldboard ridgers.

Functions/Uses of the Ridger

  1. Ridgers are used mainly to make ridges.
  2. It eases the penetration of roots and tubers of crops after use.
  3. It helps to control erosion and improves aeration.
  4. It eases the percolation of water after use.
  5. It prevents the growth of weeds after use.
  6. It collects together rich top soil, thus increasing nutrient availability.
  7. It also facilities the harvesting of root crops.


Maintenance of Ploughs, Harrows, Cultivators and Ridgers

  1. Keep implements clean by removing all trashes and mud from it at the start and at the end of operation.
  2. Ensure that nuts, caps, screws or shields are tight.
  3. Grease metal joints or bearing regularly.
  4. Adhere strictly to manual or manufacturer’s instructions.
  5. Replace worn-out parts.
  6. Keep implements in cool and dry sheds.
  7. Employ a competent and experienced tractor operator to ensure the use of these implements properly.



Description: The planter has a large container or hopper.  It also has a ratchet and an agitator inside the container.  Also present are spaced couters or furrow openers in front of the hopper.  There is also a furrow-covering device behind the hopper and a roller behind the furrow-covering device.  There are two long handles for the operator.  The whole equipment is mounted on two wheels.


These are machines or implements designed primarily to plant seeds of crops such as cotton, maize, guinea corn, rice and beans or cowpea. 

Maintenance of the Planter

  1. A planter should be used for the purpose for which it is meant.
  2. It should be dismantled and washed or cleaned after use.
  3. It should be stored under cool, dry environment
  4. Metal parts should be oiled or greased to prevent rusting.
  5. Bolts and nuts should be inspected and tightened regularly.
  6. Replace worn-out parts
  7. All movable joints should be lubricated.



These are machines or implements designed primarily to facilitate the process of harvesting various crops.


Types of Harvesters

  1. Mower
  2. This is used to clear weeds and other low or smaller grasses
  3. It can also be used to harvest forage grasses for hay and silage making.
  4. Forage Harvester
  5. It is used to harvest and chop green row crops. It combines the work of both row binder and silage cutter.
  6. It removes the drudgery of lifting and loading of several tons of green bundles of maize per hectare.
  7. It produces silage at a reduced cost.
  8. It prevents the loss of moisture on the forage.
  9. Combined Harvesters
  10. It combines the function of harvesting of and threshing of grain crops.
  11. It also separates the grains from the cobs or straws.
  12. It also cleans the grains by separating them from the chaff.
  13. It ensures the passage of the grains and chaff through different nozzles.



These are types of equipment designed to spray certain chemicals in various farm operations.

Types of Sprayers

Types of sprayers include hand gun, knapsack sprayer, motorized sprayer, boom or tractor-mounted sprayer or electrodial and helicopter-mounted sprayer.


  1. Knapsack (Pneumatic) Sprayer: The pressure needed to spray chemical is provided by hand, i.e it is a hand-operated sprayer.
  2. Tractor-Mounted Sprayer: This is mounted behind the tractor during spraying.
  3. Helicopter-Mounted Sprayer: This is mounted on a helicopter which sprays over a large area of land.


Functions/Uses of Sprayers

  1. Sprayers can be used to control the growth of weeds through the use of herbicides.
  2. It is also used to control insects through the use of insecticides.
  3. It is also used to spray disinfectants on livestock houses and structures.
  4. It can be used for light irrigation or watering of vegetable beds.
  5. It can be used to spray liquid fertilizers and pesticides


Maintenance of Sprayer

  1. It should be properly rinsed with water after use to get rid of left-over chemicals.
  2. Clean the nozzle and rinse with water to remove left-over chemicals.
  3. Keep in cool, dry place.
  4. Turn upside-down after use or cleaning
  5. Operate according to instructions.


EVALUATION:   1. Explain the meaning of farm machinery and equipment

  1. Give examples of farm machinery, state their uses and                              how to maintain them

CLASSWORK: As in evaluation

CONCLUSION: The teacher commends the students positively