# Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Senior Secondary 1

Profit and loss account II

Term: 3rd Term

Week: 2

Class: Senior Secondary School 1

Age: 15 years

Duration: 40 minutes of 2 periods each

Date:

Subject:      Financial accounting

Topic:-       Profit and Loss account II

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to

2. Prepare profit and loss account
3. Calculate value of depreciation

INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES: Identification, explanation, questions and answers, demonstration, videos from source

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS: Videos, loud speaker, textbook, pictures

INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES

PERIOD 1-2

 PRESENTATION TEACHER’S ACTIVITY STUDENT’S ACTIVITY STEP 1 INTRODUCTION The teacher reviews the previous lesson on exercises on profit and loss account Students pay attention STEP 2 EXPLANATION She prepares a trading account and a profit and loss account Students pay attention and participates STEP 3 DEMONSTRATION She further calculates the value of depreciation Students pay attention and participate STEP 4 NOTE TAKING The teacher writes a summarized note on the board The students copy the note in their books

NOTE

PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT

Each business wants to know the operating results (profits) from its operations. The last step of the accounting cycle is to analyse the Gross Profit of the business followed by Net profit. To determine the Gross Profit, Trading Account is prepared, and for Net Profit, Profit and Loss Account is prepared. Although these are two separate accounts, but are prepared together in general ledger as part of final financial statements.

Gross Profit can be calculated as:

Gross profit = Net Sales – Cost of Goods Sold

where,

Net Sales = Cash Sales + Credit Sales – Sales Return

Cost of Goods Sold = Opening Inventory + Net Purchases + Direct Expenses- Closing Inventory

The various nominal accounts showing debit and credit balances which are related to Trading A/c are closed and transferred to Trading A/c.

Journal Entry:

1. For Accounts having Debit Balance:

1. For Accounts having Credit Balance:

1. For Gross Profit/Gross Loss:
• For Gross Profit: (If Credit side is more)

• For Gross Loss: (If Debit side is more)

Illustration:

ABC Co. Ltd. is a trading firm dealing in sales of car batteries. In Financial Year 2021-22, ABC trading firm has made sales of ₹10,00,000, out of which ₹50,000 has been returned due to quality issues. The firm had an opening stock of ₹1,00,000 and left with closing inventory of ₹1,50,000. ABC Co. has made purchases of ₹5,00,000, of which ₹1,00,000 has been returned to vendor due to some issues. The transportation cost of bringing in the batteries has been borne by ABC Co. of ₹50,000. Calculate gross profit/(losses) of ABC Co. for FY 2021-22.

Solution:

Profit and Loss Account:

After preparing Trading A/c where all the items directly related to production or purchase of goods are adjusted, businesses prepare Profit & Loss A/c. Profit & Loss A/c shows the overall profitability (Net Profit) of the business considering non-trading expenses and incomes of the business. This account begins where the trading account ends. The balance of Gross Profit/ Gross Loss is carried down as starting point to adjust various expenses and incomes, determining net profit.

Some of the items that are seen on the debit side of the Profit and Loss Account include wages and salaries, insurance, audit fees, electricity charges, depreciation, rent, telephone expenses, repair and maintenance, interest on loans, etc., and a few examples of credit side items are discount received, commission received, bank interest, rent received, dividend on shares, etc.

Net profit can be determined by deducting business expenses from the gross profit and adding other incomes obtained.

Net profit = Gross Profit  + Other Income – Expenses

Closing Entries for Profit & Loss Account:

The various nominal accounts showing debit and credit balances, which are related to Profit & Loss A/c are closed and transferred to Profit & Loss A/c.

1. For Accounts having Debit Balance:

1. For Accounts having Credit Balance:

1. For Net Profit/Net Loss:
• For Net Profit: (If Credit side is more)

• For Net Loss: (If Debit side is more)

Illustration:

ABC Co. Ltd. has earned a Gross Profit of ₹5,50,000 for the financial year 2021-22. The company paid Rent of ₹20,000, Electricity (Office) ₹5,000, Wages to Employee ₹50,000, Interest on Loan ₹35,000, Audit Fees ₹5,000, and Insurance ₹30,000 in that year. Depreciation charges for the year is ₹15,000. Also, the firm received Bank Interest ₹5,000 and Commission on Sales of ₹40,000. Calculate Net profit/ Net Loss for FY 2021-22.

Solution:

KEY ADJUSTMENT ITEMS IN PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT

1. Prepayment; benefits not yet enjoyed but paid for.
2. Accruals; benefits enjoyed but not yet paid for.
3. Depreciation
4. Provision for bad/ doubtful debts.

EVALUATION : 1. How do you calculate value of gross profit?

1. How do you calculate value of net profit?
2. How do you post depreciation in profit and loss account?
3. The following balances were extracted from the books of Bola John Enterprises for the year ended 31st December, 2010

The following additional information also relates to the account;

• The stock at December 31st , 2010 was valued at #44290
• ¾ of the expenses for rates, light and heating is to be charged to the warehouse and the remainder to the office.
• Furniture and equipment is to be depreciated by 10% and the motor vehicle by 20%.
• Insurance paid in advance amount to #100.
• The provision for bad debts at December 31st, 2010 is to stand at 2% of the trade debtors at that date.

You are required to prepare Trading, Profit and Loss account for the year ended 31st December, 2010.

CLASSWORK: As in evaluation

CONCLUSION: The teacher commends the students positively