TERM – 2^{ND} TERM
WEEK NINE
Class: Senior Secondary School 1
Age: 15 years
Duration: 40 minutes of 5 periods each
Date:
Subject: Geography
Topic: INTRODUCTION TO BASIC CONCEPTS IN MAP READING
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to
INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES: Identification, explanation, questions and answers,
demonstration, videos from source
INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS: Videos, loud speaker, textbook, pictures
INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES
PERIOD 12
PRESENTATION 
TEACHER’S ACTIVITY 
STUDENT’S ACTIVITY 
STEP 1 INTRODUCTION 
The teacher introduces map, and explain the different types of maps and their uses to the students. 
Each student explains maps and state different types of maps and their uses 
STEP 2 EXPLANATION 
Teacher identify various types of map scale and explain them. 
Students in pairs identify and describe different types of map scales and their attributes 
STEP 3 DEMONSTRATIO N 
Teacher discusses merits and demerits of various types of map scale. Teacher show students how to convert from one scale to another. 
Students as a class, highlight the merits and demerits of the various types of scale. Students in small groups, convert map scale from one form to anothert 
STEP 4 NOTE TAKING 
The teacher writes a summarized note on the board

The students copy the note in their books 
NOTE
INTRODUCTION TO BASIC CONCEPTS IN MAP READING
A Map
A map is a visual representation of a geographical area, typically depicting the spatial relationships between various elements such as landforms, cities, roads, and geographical features. Maps can be used to navigate, convey information about the physical environment, display political boundaries, or illustrate thematic data. They come in various types, including topographic maps, road maps, political maps, and thematic maps, each serving different purposes based on the information they convey.
Types of maps
There are different types of maps along with explanations and examples of their uses:
An example is a map illustrating the physical landscape of a region, showcasing terrain and elevation.
Population Density Map which illustrates the concentration of people in different regions using color gradients.
Uses of Map
etc.
captains
Types of map scales and their attributes
There are various types of map scales used to represent the relationship between distances on a map and corresponding distances on the Earth's surface. Below are some common types:
1. Linear Scale (or Bar Scale):
A linear scale, also known as a bar scale, is a graphical representation on a map that illustrates the relationship between distances on the map and the actual distances on the Earth's surface. Its main attributes include: Representation, Measurement, Units, Accuracy, Placement etc
Merits of Linear Scales
Demerits of Linear Scales
2. Statement Of Scale: This is a scale usually expressed as the ratio of map size to the actual size of an area in words. The statement scale can be stated in different ways. For example, one centimetre to represent two kilometres or 1cm to 1km. This means that 1cm represents the distance on map while the last figure, 1km represents the distance on the ground. Note, it is not correct to say that one centimetre is equal to one kilometre or 1cm =1km.
How to Use Statement of Scale
Solution:
Map distance = 10cm
Ground distance =?
Map scale = 2cm to 1km
Since 2cm = 1km
Therefore: 10cm = 10/2 X 1km = 5km.
The ground distance between the two places is 5km.
Merits of statement of scale
Demerits of statement scale
3. Representative Fraction (RF) or Ratio Scale:
The representative fraction (RF), also known as the ratio scale, is a way of expressing the scale of a map in the form of a ratio or fraction. This scale provides a clear and consistent representation of the relationship between distances on the map and corresponding distances on the Earth's surface.
In the representative fraction, the scale is expressed as a ratio, where the first number represents the map distance, and the second number represents the equivalent realworld distance. For example:
 An RF of 1:50,000 indicates that one unit on the map represents 50,000 units on the ground.
 An RF of 1/100,000 signifies that one unit on the map corresponds to 100,000 units in reality.
Merits of Representative Scales
Demerits of Representative Scales
Convert map scale from one form to another
Examples 1: Convert the following statement scales to Ratio scale
Solution
I. 2cm to 1km
2cm to (1km × 100,000) = 2cm to 100,000cm
Expressing as a fraction and dividing through
2cm / 100,000cm = 1/50,000
Thus 2cm to 1km is 1:50,000 in R. F
Remember 2cm to 1km may also be written as 1cm to ½km
II. 1cm to 1km
Convert 1km to cm by multiplying with 100,000
1cm to (1km × 100,000) = 1cm to 100,000 cm
Expressing as a fraction,
1cm to 100,000cm = 1cm/100,000cm
Expressing as a ratio
1cm to 1km is therefore 1:100,000 in R. F
Example 2: Convert the following R. F scales to statement scales
Procedure :
Solutions :
I. 1 :20,000
Let's first divide the measurement by 100,000
Now 20,000/100,000 = ⅕ km
Thus, 1: 20,000 = 1cm to ⅕ km or 5cm to 1km
II. 1:50,000
Divide the ground measurement by 100,000
Hence, 50,000/100,000 = ½km
Therefore 1:500,000 = 1cm to ½km or 2cm to 1km in statement scale
EVALUATION: 1. What is a Map?
CLASSWORK: As in evaluation
CONCLUSION: The teacher commends the students positively