Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Senior Secondary School 1

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Term: 2nd Term

Week: 10

Class: Senior Secondary School 1

Age: 15 years

Duration: 40 minutes of 2 periods each


Subject:      Civic Education

Topic:-       Federalism

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to

  1. Explain federalism
  2. Enumerate reasons for the adoption of federalism
  3. State the characteristics of federalism
  4. Define resource control in federalism
  5. Highlight the merits and demerits of federalism

INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES: Identification, explanation, questions and answers, demonstration, videos from source

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS: Videos, loud speaker, textbook, pictures








The teacher reviews the previous lesson on freedom

Students pay attention



She explains federalism and gives reasons for it adoption.

She further states the characteristics of federalism

Students pay attention and participates



She explains resource control within the context of federalism.

She further discusses the merits and demerits of federalism

Students pay attention and participate



The teacher writes a summarized note on the board

The students copy the note in their books




Federalism can be defined as one in which governmental powers that exist

in the country are shared between a central government that represent the

whole country and government of component regions or states, so that

each government is legally and constitutionally independent and



It does not mean that powers are shared equally between the central

government and government of the component regions or state. Countries

that practice federalism adopt federal constitution. Examples of countries

that adopt federalism include; U.S.A., Nigeria, Federal Republic of


Germany, Brazil, Switzerland, Australia, Yugoslavia, India among others.

The powers of the government are assigned constitutionally among the

states and central government. The powers are usually referred to

as legislative lists. Under the federal exclusive legislative lists in Nigeria

are the federal civil service, mining, defense, foreign policy, currency and

banking, aviation, immigration, police, customs, and prisons. Only the

central government can legislate on the subjects in the exclusive lists.


Reasons for Federalism

  1. for rapid and even development
  2. a federal system is suitable for a state with large geographical area and large population.
  3. to bring government nearer to the people
  4. to expand local markets
  5. due tribal differences
  6. to create more employment opportunities
  7. some states desire a union because of threat to their independence or fear of external attacks.
  8. for diverse law to be made
  9. for easy and effective government
  10. for the protection of the interest of minority groups


Characteristics or Features of Federalism

  1. The constitutional powers are shared among the levels or tiers of government; that is, the federal, state and local governments.
  2. Each component unit or government has sole control over the area under its authority.
  3. The constitution of a federal state is usually rigid. It cannot be amended by any one level of government, but by all the governments together.
  4. Supreme Court settles constitutional conflicts.
  5. Federal system of government adopts written constitution.
  6. There is duplication of organs of government in all levels or tiers of government.
  7. The constitution is supreme in federalism.
  8. The constitution of federalism forbids secession.
  9. The constitution specifies the areas of responsibility of each level of government.
  10. All the levels of government derive their powers from the constitution.


Resource Control in a Federal System Government

In federalism, the state or local government would manage the resources

from their territories under federal guidelines, and then remit taxes to the

federal government


Merits or Advantages of Federalism

  1. faster development
  2. it brings government nearer to the people
  3. encouragement of healthy competition
  4. prevention of emergence of dictator
  5. it allays fear of domination
  6. creation of more employment opportunity
  7. guarantee human rights:
  8. it maintains political stability
  9. economic advantages


Demerits or Disadvantages of Federalism

  1. inter-state friction
  2. it is expensive to operate
  3. difficulty in taking quick decisions
  4. fear of domination
  5. problem of wealth sharing
  6. problems of co-ordination
  7. difficulty in amending the constitution
  8. it leads to dual loyalty



EVALUATION:    1. Explain the meaning of federalism

  1. Enumerate reasons for the adoption of federalism
  2. State the characteristics of federalism
  3. Define resource control in federalism
  4. Highlight the merits and demerits of federalism

CLASSWORK: As in evaluation

CONCLUSION: The teacher commends the students positively