Term: 1^{st} Term
Week: 6
Class: Senior Secondary School 1
Age: 15 years
Duration: 40 minutes of 2 periods each
Date:
Subject: Economics
Topic: Basic tools of economic analysis
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to
INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES: Identification, explanation, questions and answers, demonstration, videos from source
INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS: Videos, loud speaker, textbook, pictures
INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES
PERIOD 12
PRESENTATION 
TEACHER’S ACTIVITY 
STUDENT’S ACTIVITY 
STEP 1 INTRODUCTION 
The teacher reviews the previous lesson on the basic economic problems 
Students pay attention 
STEP 2 EXPLANATION 
She discusses the characteristics and importance of table and charts

Students pay attention and participates 
STEP 3 DEMONSTRATION 
She also discusses the characteristics of graphs 
Students pay attention and participate 
STEP 4 NOTE TAKING 
The teacher writes a summarized note on the board 
The students copy the note in their books 
NOTE
BASIC TOOLS FOR ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
A table is a systematic and orderly arrangement of information or facts usually in rows and columns for presentation which make it easier for better understanding
CHARACTERISTICS OF A TABLE
IMPORTANCE OF TABLE
EXAMPLE OF A TABLE
The below table shows the names of wigs, quantity and prices ordered by a wig vendor from a Vietnamese factory
S/N 
WIGS 
QUANTITY 
UNIT PRICE 
PRICE 
1 
14 inches blunt cut wig 
1 
15,000 
15,000 
2 
Scarf braided wig 
2 
25,000 
50,000 
3 
360 frontal wig 
1 
25,000 
25,000 
4 
14 inches bouncy curls 
3 
68,000 
204,000 
5 
12 inches full frontal bob 
2 
37,000 
74,000 

GRAND TOTAL 


368,000 
This is another tool of presenting data through a diagrams or pictures. Charts gives visual display of data.
Examples of charts are bar charts, histogram, etc.
BAR CHARTS
Bar chart is a graph which shows the relationship between one variable and another. The graph is usually made up of bars. The lengths of the bars are usually drawn to be proportional to the magnitude of the data being represented. The main characteristics of bar charts are that the body of bars must not touch each other. There must be a space or gap between one bar and another. But chart may be arranged vertically or horizontally.
TYPES OF BAR CHARTS
There are three major types of bar charts. These are:
A SIMPLE BAR CHART
Simple bar chart is used when the data given are made up of only one item or component. The bar chart can be presented by tabulated data with evenly spaced bars, separated by gaps with the length proportional to the magnitude of the value given.
Example
The total number of pupils in each class in a nursery school
CLASS 
PREK 
TODDLER 1 
TODDLER 2 
NURSERY 1 
NURSERY 2 
PUPILS 
100 
50 
70 
65 
72 
Solution
COMPONENT BAR CHART
A component bar char is used when the data involved are more than one
Example
Below is the population of the nursery school from 20202023.
Present the data in a component bar chart.

PREK 
TODDLER 1 
TODDLER 2 
NURSERY 1 
NURSERY 2 
2020 
25 
35 
40 
55 
80 
2021 
40 
50 
60 
36 
79 
2022 
50 
70 
80 
65 
81 
2023 
75 
75 
100 
70 
60 
SOLUTION
MULTIPLE BAR CHART
A multiple bar graph shows the relationship between different values of data
Below is the sales made by a Grocery store on from Tuesday to Thursday
Type of Vegetable 
Tuesday 
Wednesday 
Thursday 

Tomatoes 
32 kg. 
36 kg. 
36 kg. 

Lettuce 
40 kg. 
33 kg. 
37 kg. 

Corn 
56 kg. 
65 kg. 
67 kg. 

Carrots 
28 kg. 
25 kg. 
23 kg. 

Broccoli 
27 kg. 
31 kg. 
34 kg. 

Cabbage 
44 kg. 
54 kg. 
58 kg. 
SOLUTION
PIE CHART
A pie chart is a type of graph that represents the data in the circular graph.
The slices of pie show the relative size of the data, and it is a type of
pictorial representation of data. A pie chart requires a list of categorical
variables and numerical variables.
EXAMPLE OF A PIE CHART
Represent the following distribution of pupils in a nursery school on a pie
chart
CLASS 
PREK 
TODDLER 1 
TODDLER 2 
NURSERY 1 
NURSERY 2 
PUPILS 
35 
10 
10 
25 
20 
SOLUTION
Graph is defined as a diagram that shows relationship between two or
more variables e.g line graph, pie chart, bar graph etc.
FEATURES OF GRAPH
variables
IMPORTANCE OF GRAPH
expressed
Line Graph
Line graph is a line used for data where emphasis is on
continuous change. It is used to connect the highest and the lowest point of
a group of data. Line graph could be straight or curve
EXAMPLES OF LINE GRAPH
Represent the below information on the amount of bags of water bought by
a family from March 2023 to August 2023
MONTH 
BAGS OF WATER 
March 
20 
April 
26 
May 
15 
June 
30 
July 
18 
August 
15 
SOLUTION
EVALUATION: 1. Discuss two characteristics and importance of
The table below represents the total number of learners that subscribed for a particular sporting activity in a school
SPORTS 
LEARNERS 
Swimming 
40 
Martial acts 
15 
Gymnastics 
10 
Badminton 
35 
CLASSWORK: As in evaluation
CONCLUSION: The teacher commends the students positively