# Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Senior Secondary 1

Introduction to Physics

Term: 1st Term

Week: 1

Class: Senior Secondary School 1

Age: 15 years

Duration: 40 minutes of 5 periods each

Date:

Subject:      Physics

Topic:-       Introduction to Physics

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to

1. Define physics
2. Discuss the concept of matter
3. Explain fundamental and derived units
4. Explain position, distance and displacement

INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES: Identification, explanation, questions and answers, demonstration, videos from source

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS: Videos, loud speaker, textbook, pictures

INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES

PERIOD 1-2

 PRESENTATION TEACHER’S ACTIVITY STUDENT’S ACTIVITY STEP 1 INTRODUCTION The teacher reviews the students’ knowledge about the word physics Students pay attention STEP 2 EXPLANATION He defines physics. He discusses the concepts of matter Students pay attention and participates STEP 3 DEMONSTRATION He explains fundamental and derived units giving examples of each. He also explains position, distance and displacement Students pay attention and participate STEP 4 NOTE TAKING The teacher writes a summarized note on the board The students copy the note in their books

NOTE

INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS

Physics is a branch of science that deals with the study of matter in relation to energy. The branches of Physics are: Mechanics, Light, Electricity, Waves, Magnetism, Atomic Physics, Electromagnetism, Dynamics, Heat, Sound etc.

CONCEPT OF MATTER

Matter is anything that has mass or weight and occupies space. The idea that matter is made up of minute particles called atom dated back to the ancient Greek. Atom is the smallest indivisible Particle of an element which can take part in a chemical change. It consists of proton, neutron and electron. Proton is positively charged, neutron is neutral and electron is negatively charged

Matter can exist in three states- Solids, Liquids and Gases

SOLIDS: The molecules of solids are closely packed together. They have definite shape and volume

LIQUIDS: Its molecule are freer than that of solid, they have definite volume but no definite shape

GASES: The cohesive force binding the gases molecules together is negligible. They have no definite shape and Volume

QUANTITIES AND UNITS

There are two types

1. Fundamental quantities and units: These are basic physical quantities or units that are independent of others and cannot be defined in terms of other quantities or units. Examples of Fundamental quantities are: Mass, Length, Time, Temperature, Electric Current, Luminous intensity, Amount of Substance. While Fundamental Unit is given as: Kilogram (Kg), Meter (m), Seconds (S), Kelvin (k), Ampere (A), Candela (CD), Mole (Mol).
 S/N FUNDAMENTAL QUANTITIES UNITS 1 Mass Kilogram (kg) 2 Length Meter (m) 3 Time Seconds (s) 4 Temperature Kelvin (k) 5 Electric Current Ampere (A) 6 Luminous Intensity Candela (Cd) 7 Amount of Substance Mole (mol)

1. Derived quantities and units: These are quantities and units that are derived from fundamental quantities and units e.g. Area, Volume, Density, velocity, power, force, pressure etc. with their respective units given as m2, m3, Kg/m3,m/s, Nm/s, N, Kgm/s2
 S/N DERIVED QUANTITIES UNIT 1 Volume M3 2 Acceleration m/s2 3 Work Done Nm 4 Momentum Kgm/s or Ns 5 Density Kg/m3 6 Electric Charge C 7 Speed m/s

POSITION, DISTANCE AND DISPLACEMENT

POSITION: Position of an object in space or on a plane is the point at which the object can be located with reference to a given point

DISTANCE: This is the measure of separation between two points. To determine distance between two points located in a plane defined by two ordered pair of value (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) or assumed to be in space where they are defined by (x1, y1, z1) and (x2, y2, z2), the distance between them can be defined by applying the relation:

Distance, s= √(  21)2 + (  21)2

Or Distance, s=   √(  21)2 + (  2 −   1)2 + (  21)2

Example: Calculate the distance between the points A(2,3) and B(-5,1) on a plane

Solution

Distance AB = √(−5 − 2)2 + (1 − 3)2

= √(−7)2 + (−2)2

= √49+4

= 3 units

DISPLACEMENT: This is a distance covered in a specific direction.

Examples: The path distance from the garden to a school is 5 m west and then 4 m south. A builder wants to build a short distance path for it. Find the displacement length of the shortest path.

Solution:

Given: Distance to the west x = 5 m

Distance to the south y = 4 m.

Displacement is given by

s = 6.403 m.

The builder can build a path for displacement length of 6.7 m.

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN DISTANCE AND DISPLACEMENT

 S/N DISTANCE DISPLACEMENT 1 It only measures the space between two points It measures both the space between two points and the angular direction 2 It is a scalar quantity It is a vector quantity 3 It can be measured with meter rule, tape rule etc. without including compass Its involve the inclusion of Compass

EVALUATION:    1. Define physics

1. Discuss the concept of matter
2. Explain fundamental and derived units. Give three examples of each
3. Explain position, distance and displacement
4. A girl walks from the corridor to the gate she moves 3m to the north opposite to her house then takes a left turn and walks for 5m, then she takes right turn and moves for 6m and reaches the gate. What is the displacement, magnitude, and distance covered by her?

CLASSWORK: As in evaluation

CONCLUSION: The teacher commends the students positively