# Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Primary 6

Lever + Food and Nutrition + Large scale applications of computer

Term: 3rd Term

Week: 1

Class: Primary 6

Age: 11 years

Duration: 40 minutes of 3 periods

Date:

Subject: Basic Science and Technology

Topic:-       Lever

-        Food and Nutrition

-        Large scale applications of computer

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to

1. Explain the meaning of Lever
2. Mention some examples of lever
3. Draw and label different types of lever
4. Discuss the uses of lever
5. Define Nutrition
6. State the importance of nutrition
7. Mention the diseases that are associated with insufficient nutrients
8. Outline various large scale applications of computer

INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES: Identification, explanation, playway method, questions and answers, demonstration, videos from source

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS: computer system, projector, sound system, picture/video clips showing the different types of lever, bottle opener, scissors, nut cracker

INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES

PERIOD 1: Lever

 PRESENTATION TEACHER’S ACTIVITY PUPIL’S ACTIVITY STEP 1INTRODUCTION The teacher introduces the new topic by explaining the meaning of simple machineSimple machine is any of several devices with few or no moving parts that are used to modify motion and the magnitude of a force in order to perform work. Pupils pay attention STEP 2EXPLANATION She explains the meaning, types and examples of LeverLever is a rigid bar pivoted about a fulcrum, used to transfer a force to a load and usually to provide a mechanical advantage Types of lever1. First-class levers- First-class levers are referred to as those which are found to have the fulcrum between the force and the load.Examples are1.   Pliers2.   Scissors3.   Crowbar4.   Claw hammer5.   See-saw6.   Weighing balance7.   The hand pushing objects or seesaws, crowbars.8.   Using scissors shows the use of first-class levers.9.   A wheel and an axle.10.                Pulling a nail out of a wooden plank. 2. Second-class lever- In the second-class, the load is found to be present within the effort that is the force and the fulcrum.Examples include1.   Wheelbarrow2.   Crowbar3.   Nutcracker4.   Bottle opener5.   Brake pedal of a car6.   Nail clippers3. Third class lever- In the third-class levers, the force is found to be present within the load and the fulcrum.Examples include1.   Tweezers2.   Stapler3.   Mousetrap4.   Broom5.   Hockey stick Pupils pay attention and participates STEP 3DEMONSTRATION She enumerates the uses of lever in everyday lifeLevers are responsible for making it easy to lift heavy materials, remove tight objects, and cut objects.Hammer claws are referred to as the common levers which are responsible for helping you in removing the nails which are embedded in wood or other hard surfaces.Wheel bars are referred to as those which are helpful in day to day life as they allow you to transport the loads which are found to be too heavy or heavy.Tweezers and tweezers can be considered as the examples of levers which are found in making it easy to lift or remove the items, even if the items are not that heavy.Scissors is found to be one more example of a lever which is found responsible for using the force in order to cut or separate any of the required material. Pupils pay attention and participate STEP 4NOTE TAKING The teacher writes a short note on the board The pupils copy the note in their books

NOTE

Simple machine is any of several devices with few or no moving parts that are used to modify motion and the magnitude of a force in order to perform work.

Meaning, types and examples of Lever

Lever is a rigid bar pivoted about a fulcrum, used to transfer a force to a load and usually to provide a mechanical advantage

Types of lever

1. First-class levers- First-class levers are referred to as those which are found to have the fulcrum between the force and the load.

Examples are

1. Pliers
2. Scissors
3. Crowbar
4. Claw hammer
5. See-saw
6. Weighing balance
7. The hand pushing objects or seesaws, crowbars.
8. Using scissors shows the use of first-class levers.
9. A wheel and an axle.
10. Pulling a nail out of a wooden plank.

1. Second-class lever- In the second-class, the load is found to be present within the effort that is the force and the fulcrum.

Examples include

1. Wheelbarrow
2. Crowbar
3. Nutcracker
4. Bottle opener
5. Brake pedal of a car
6. Nail clippers

1. Third class lever- In the third-class levers, the force is found to be present within the load and the fulcrum.

Examples include

1. Tweezers
2. Stapler
3. Mousetrap
4. Broom
5. Hockey stick

Uses of lever in everyday life

1. Levers are responsible for making it easy to lift heavy materials, remove tight objects, and cut objects.
2. Hammer claws are referred to as the common levers which are responsible for helping you in removing the nails which are embedded in wood or other hard surfaces.
3. Wheel bars are referred to as those which are helpful in day to day life as they allow you to transport the loads which are found to be too heavy or heavy.
4. Tweezers and tweezers can be considered as the examples of levers which are found in making it easy to lift or remove the items, even if the items are not that heavy.
5. Scissors is found to be one more example of a lever which is found responsible for using the force in order to cut or separate any of the required material.

EVALUATION:    1. Define the term ‘Levers’

1. State and explain all the classes of lever. Give two examples of each
2. Discuss four uses of lever in everyday life

CLASSWORK: As in evaluation

CONCLUSION: The teacher commends the pupils positively

PERIOD 2 and 3: Food and nutrition. Larges scale applications of computer

 PRESENTATION TEACHEIR’S ACTIVITY PUPIL’S ACTIVITY STEP 1INTRODUCTION The teacher revisits the previous lesson on food and nutrition Pupils pay attention STEP 2EXPLANATION She mentions the six classes of nutrientCarbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, fats and oils, minerals and water.She then discusses the effects of family size on nutritionIncrease in family size reduces seriously the ability of each member of the household to access sufficient nutrients. She further outlines the characteristics of nutritionally deficient person1. weakness and tiredness2. constant sicknesses and diseases3. abnormal brain function4. mental anxiety, disorders and depression5. Hair breakage and weakness6. Underweight7. dizziness and weak bones8. Poor vision and concentration Pupils pay attention and participates STEP 3DEMONSTRATION The teacher discusses the Large scale applications of computerComputer is used in business organizations for −Payroll calculationsBudgetingSales analysisFinancial forecastingManaging employee databaseMaintenance of stocks, etc. Banks provide the following facilities −Online accounting facility, which includes checking current balance, making deposits and overdrafts, checking interest charges, shares, and trustee records.ATM machines which are completely automated are making it even easier for customers to deal with banks. Insurance companies are maintaining a database of all clients with information showing −Procedure to continue with policiesStarting date of the policiesNext due installment of a policyMaturity dateInterests dueSurvival benefitsBonus In Education,·         The computer provides a tool in the education system known as CBE (Computer Based Education).·         CBE involves control, delivery, and evaluation of learning.·         Computer education is rapidly increasing the graph of number of computer students.·         There are a number of methods in which educational institutions can use a computer to educate the students.·         It is used to prepare a database about performance of a student and analysis is carried out on this basis. In healthcare,Diagnostic System − Computers are used to collect data and identify the cause of illness.Lab-diagnostic System − All tests can be done and the reports are prepared by computer.Patient Monitoring System − These are used to check the patient's signs for abnormality such as in Cardiac Arrest, ECG, etc.Pharma Information System − Computer is used to check drug labels, expiry dates, harmful side effects, etc.Surgery − Nowadays, computers are also used in performing surgery.In engineering design,Structural Engineering − Requires stress and strain analysis for design of ships, buildings, budgets, airplanes, etc.Industrial Engineering − Computers deal with design, implementation, and improvement of integrated systems of people, materials, and equipment.Architectural Engineering − Computers help in planning towns, designing buildings, determining a range of buildings on a site using both 2D and 3D drawings. In the Military,Missile ControlMilitary CommunicationMilitary Operation and PlanningSmart Weapons In communicationE-mailChattingUsenetFTPTelnetVideo-conferencing In governmentBudgetsSales tax departmentIncome tax departmentComputation of male/female ratioComputerization of voters listsComputerization of PAN cardWeather forecasting Pupils pay attention and participate STEP 4NOTE TAKING The teacher writes a short note on the board The pupils copy the note in their books

NOTE

Six classes of nutrient

Carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, fats and oils, minerals and water.

Effects of family size on nutrition

Increase in family size reduces seriously the ability of each member of the household to access sufficient nutrients.

Characteristics of nutritionally deficient person

1. weakness and tiredness
2. constant sicknesses and diseases
3. abnormal brain function
4. mental anxiety, disorders and depression
5. Hair breakage and weakness
6. Underweight
7. dizziness and weak bones
8. Poor vision and concentration

Large scale applications of computer

Computer is used in business organizations for −

• Payroll calculations
• Budgeting
• Sales analysis
• Financial forecasting
• Managing employee database
• Maintenance of stocks, etc.

Banks provide the following facilities −

• Online accounting facility, which includes checking current balance, making deposits and overdrafts, checking interest charges, shares, and trustee records.
• ATM machines which are completely automated are making it even easier for customers to deal with banks.

Insurance companies are maintaining a database of all clients with information showing −

• Procedure to continue with policies
• Starting date of the policies
• Next due installment of a policy
• Maturity date
• Interests due
• Survival benefits
• Bonus

In Education,

• The computer provides a tool in the education system known as CBE (Computer Based Education).
• CBE involves control, delivery, and evaluation of learning.
• Computer education is rapidly increasing the graph of number of computer students.
• There are a number of methods in which educational institutions can use a computer to educate the students.
• It is used to prepare a database about performance of a student and analysis is carried out on this basis.

In healthcare,

• Diagnostic System − Computers are used to collect data and identify the cause of illness.
• Lab-diagnostic System − All tests can be done and the reports are prepared by computer.
• Patient Monitoring System − These are used to check the patient's signs for abnormality such as in Cardiac Arrest, ECG, etc.
• Pharma Information System − Computer is used to check drug labels, expiry dates, harmful side effects, etc.
• Surgery − Nowadays, computers are also used in performing surgery.

In engineering design,

• Structural Engineering − Requires stress and strain analysis for design of ships, buildings, budgets, airplanes, etc.
• Industrial Engineering − Computers deal with design, implementation, and improvement of integrated systems of people, materials, and equipment.
• Architectural Engineering − Computers help in planning towns, designing buildings, determining a range of buildings on a site using both 2D and 3D drawings.

In the Military,

• Missile Control
• Military Communication
• Military Operation and Planning
• Smart Weapons

In communication

• E-mail
• Chatting
• Usenet
• FTP
• Telnet
• Video-conferencing

In government

• Budgets
• Sales tax department
• Income tax department
• Computation of male/female ratio
• Computerization of voters lists
• Computerization of PAN card
• Weather forecasting

EVALUATION:    1. List the six classes of nutrients

1. Discuss the effect of family size on nutrition
2. List five characteristics of nutritionally deficient people
3. Give two examples of the large scale application of computer in