Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Primary 6

Literary techniques

TERM: 2nd Term

SUBJECT: Literature



AGE: 11 years

DURATION: 2 periods of 40 mins each


TOPIC: Literary techniques

CONTENT: Literary devices

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: By the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to;

  1. Explain the meaning of literary devices
  2. Explore the common literary devices in literature

INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES: Discussion, group activities

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS: ICT tools, recommended texts, relevant literatures, resource persons


PERIOD 1 AND 2: Literary devices







The teacher revises the previous topic on themes


Pupils observe, learn and participate



The teacher explains the meaning of literary devices and examples of common literary devices used in literature


Literary devices are specific techniques that allow a writer to convey a deeper meaning that goes beyond what's on the page. Literary devices work alongside plot and characters to elevate a story and prompt reflection on life, society, and what it means to be human



Some common Literary devices you know and their examples


1. Allegory

An allegory is a story that is used to represent a more general message about real-life (historical) issues and/or events. It is typically an entire book, novel, play, etc.


Example: George Orwell's dystopian book Animal Farm is an allegory for the events preceding the Russian Revolution and the Stalinist era in early 20th century Russia.


2. Alliteration

Alliteration is a series of words or phrases that all (or almost all) start with the same sound. These sounds are typically consonants to give more stress to that syllable.


Example: "Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers." In this tongue twister, the "p" sound is repeated at the beginning of all major words.


3. Allusion

Allusion is when an author makes an indirect reference to a figure, place, event, or idea originating from outside the text.

Example: "Stop acting so smart—it's not like you're Einstein or something." This is an allusion to the famous real-life theoretical physicist Albert Einstein.


4. Anthropomorphism

An anthropomorphism occurs when something nonhuman, such as an animal, place, or inanimate object, behaves in a human-like way.

Example: Mickey and Minnie Mouse can speak, wear clothes, sing, dance, drive cars, etc. Real mice can't do any of these things,


5. Colloquialism

Colloquialism is the use of informal language and slang.

Example: "Hey, what's up, man?"


6. Euphemism

A euphemism is when a more mild or indirect word or expression is used in place of another word or phrase that is considered harsh, blunt, vulgar, or unpleasant.

Example: "I'm so sorry, but he didn't make it." The phrase "didn't make it" is a more polite and less blunt way of saying that someone has died.


7. Flashback

A flashback is an interruption in a narrative that depicts events that have already occurred, either before the present time or before the time at which the narration takes place.


8. Foreshadowing

Foreshadowing is when an author indirectly hints at

what's to come later on in the story

Pupils observe, learn and participate



1. Explain the meaning of Literary devices

2. Enumerate and describe some common literary devices used in literature

- Pupils observe, learn and participate



As in Evaluation

Pupils observe, learn and participate



As in Evaluation

Pupils participate



The teacher marks their books, corrects it and commend the pupils


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