TERM: 3rd Term
CLASS: Primary 5
AGE: 10 years
DURATION: 40 minutes of 2 periods each
SUBJECT: Prevocational Studies
TOPIC: - Common diseases of farm animals
- Baking, roasting and frying
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to
- Outline the symptoms of some animal diseases
- Identify modes of transmission of animal diseases
- Suggest preventive and control measures for animal diseases
- Discuss each method of cooking
- Compare and contrast merits and demerits of each cooking methods
- Experiment each method of cooking
INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES: Identification, explanation, playway method, questions and answers, demonstration.
INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS: pictures of animals infected with diseases, samples of cooked food items/images, charts illustrating different methods of cooking
PERIOD 1 and 2:
The teacher revises the previous lesson on animal diseases and cooking methods
Pupils pay attention
She explains outlines the symptoms of animal diseases, preventive and control measures
1. Loss of appetite or not feeding at all.
2. Fever and high body temperature
3. Abnormal consistent of the faeces.
4. Abnormal colour (or consistence) of the urine.
5. Abnormal colour or consistence of the milk.
6. Swollen and hot areas of the body such as lymph glands or the udder.
7. Breathing rate.
8. Unusual smells.
9. Abnormal behaviour
PREVENTIVE AND CONTROL MEASURES
1. Prevention of Environmental contamination.
2. Control of Intermediate host, vectors and reservoirs.
3. Control of internal parasites.
4. Control of arthropod pests.
5. Control and reducing the infection as soon as an outbreak occurs.
6. Isolation of sick animals.
7. Vaccination of farm animals.
8. Control of traffic in and out of the farm animals buildings
Pupils pay attention
The teacher revisits all the cooking methods, their advantages and disadvantages
Pupils pay attention
The teacher writes on the board while the pupils copy the note
Pupils copy the note
Symptoms of animal diseases, preventive and control measures
- Loss of appetite or not feeding at all.
- Fever and high body temperature
- Abnormal consistent of the faeces.
- Abnormal colour (or consistence) of the urine.
- Abnormal colour or consistence of the milk.
- Swollen and hot areas of the body such as lymph glands or the udder.
- Breathing rate.
- Unusual smells.
- Abnormal behaviour
PREVENTIVE AND CONTROL MEASURES
- Prevention of Environmental contamination.
- Control of Intermediate host, vectors and reservoirs.
- Control of internal parasites.
- Control of arthropod pests.
- Control and reducing the infection as soon as an outbreak occurs.
- Isolation of sick animals.
- Vaccination of farm animals.
- Control of traffic in and out of the farm animals buildings
Boiling is the cooking of food by immersion in water that has been heated to near its boiling point
- It does not require special skill and equipment.
- Uniform cooking can be done.
- The food cooked is light and easily digestible.
- If the amount of water is proportionate to the quantity of food to be cooked and the food is cooked covered, the nutrients are retained in the food to a large extent.
- It takes a lot of energy to boil water and it takes energy to keep it going.
- Water soluble vitamins can leech out of the food during cooking.
- Food boiled too long can still get ruined.
- Some foods taste and look terrible when you boil them, like meat.
Steaming is a method of cooking that requires moist heat. The heat is created by boiling water which vaporizes into steam. The steam brings heat to the food and cooks it.
- Whether cooked by direct or indirect method the food is soft, easy to digest and hence ideal
for the elderly and sick people particularly those with a weak digestion.
- The food is tasty and full of flavour.
- The food retains maximum nutritive value particularly in the indirect method of steaming; there is practically no loss of nutrients. However some amounts of water soluble nutrients i.e. vitamins of B group and vitamin C are lost in direct method of steaming (dripping loss) but the nutrients loss is much less as compared to boiling.
- The food generally does not get over-heated.
- It does not require constant attention.
- Texture of the food is better and becomes light and fluffy.
- Steamed foods have good flavour.
- It is a slow process of cooking and only easy to cook foods can be prepared by this method.
- If sufficient amount of water is not there in the lower container, it might evaporate completely and the container starts burning even before the food is cooked.
Stewing means to boil slowly or with simmering heat
- The meat juices are retained as part of the stew.
- Correct slow cooking results in very little evaporation.
- It is economic on fuel.
- Nutrients are conserved.
- Tough foods are tenderized.
- Economical in labor because foods can be bulk cooked.
- It is a very slow method of cooking.
- It requires constant attention.
- A good amount of vitamin C is destroyed because of the slow process of cooking.
Roasting is the exposure of food to dry radiant heat either over an open fire, within a reflecting-surface oven, or in some cases within surrounding hot embers, sand, or stones.
Foods that could be roasted include:
Corn, yam, plantain, fish etc
- Compared to baking, it is quicker method of cooking.
- A variety of foodstuffs can be prepared by roasting.
- It requires less or no fat.
- Flavour is improved.
- It reduces the moisture content of food and improves keeping quality
- It is easy to powder e.g. cumin seeds after roasting.
- The foodstuffs being roasted required constant attention.
- Losses of nutrients like amino acids occur when the food becomes brown.
Baking means to cook or become cooked in a dry heat especially in an oven.
Advantages of Baking
- The food cooked by baking is easy to digest.
- Baked foods add variety to our meals.
Disadvantages of Baking
- It is a slow method of cooking and takes a longer time.
- Specific equipment i.e. an oven is needed to use this method.
Frying means to cook in a pan or on a griddle over heat especially with the use of fat
Advantages of deep fat frying
- Quick and easy method of cooking
- Convenient with little preparation required
- Minimal loss of food quality as hot fat seals the food surface
- Adds attractive colour and flavour to food
Disadvantage of deep-frying
- Sometimes if large amounts of cooking is done, getting rid of used oil can be challenging.
Advantages of shallow frying food
- Shallow frying is frying foods in a small quantity of oil to prevent nutrients loss.
- Shallow frying could improve the taste of prime foods and adds a different texture to the food.
- Two attention points we have to be concerned of time and temperature.
Disadvantage of shallow frying
- High level of fat and cholesterol.
- Fried foods are not very easily digestible
- the surface can get carbonized or burnt very easily, if the temperature is
EVALUATION: 1. Explain the five symptoms of animal diseases
- Suggest four preventive and control measures for animal diseases
- Describe all the methods of cooking
- State two advantages and disadvantages each of all the methods of cooking
CLASS ACTIVITY: Pupils in small groups, plan the cooking of food using a suitable method of cooking. Pupils as individuals visit websites for more findings on food and cooking methods chosen in their group
CLASSWORK: As in evaluation
CONCLUSION: The teacher commends the pupils positively and marks their books