Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Primary 4

Punctuation marks

TERM: 3rd Term

SUBJECT: Grammar



AGE: 9 years

DURATION : 2 periods of 40 mins each


TOPIC : Punctuation marks

CONTENT : Punctuation marks

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: By the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to;

  1. List and Explain how punctuation marks are used

SET INDUCTION : The teachers uses pictures of words and sentences indicating punctuation marks to arouse the interest of the pupils

INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES : Discussion, group activities,

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS : The New First Aid in English by Angus Maciver page 106, flash cards, sentence strips and charts on the use of punctuation marks


PERIOD 1 AND 2: Punctuation marks







The teacher revises the previous lesson

Pupils observe, learn and participate



The teacher further lists and explains what each punctuation mark is used for


1. The full stop (.) is placed at the end of declarative sentences, statements thought to be complete and after many abbreviations.

  • As a sentence ender: Jane and Jack went to the market.
  • After an abbreviation: Her son, John Jones Jr., was born on Dec. 6, 2008.


2. Use a question mark (?) to indicate a direct question when placed at the end of a sentence.


  • When did Jane leave for the market?


3. The exclamation point (!) is used when a person wants to express a sudden outcry or add emphasis.

  • Within dialogue: "Holy cow!" screamed Jane.
  • To emphasize a point: My mother-in-law's rants make me furious!


4. The comma is used to show a separation of ideas or items within the structure of a sentence. Additionally, it is used in numbers, dates, and letter writing after the salutation and closing.

  • Direct address: Thanks for all your help, John.
  • Separation of two complete sentences: We went to the movies, and then we went out to lunch.
  • Separating lists or elements within sentences: Suzi wanted the black, green, and blue dress.


5. The semicolon (;) is used to connect independent clauses. It shows a closer relationship between the clauses than a period would show.

  • John was hurt; he knew she only said it to upset him.


6. A colon (:) has three main uses. The first is after a word introducing a quotation, an explanation, an example, or a series.

  • He was planning to study four subjects: politics, philosophy, sociology, and economics.


The second is between independent clauses when the second explains the first, similar to a semicolon:

  • I didn't have time to get changed: I was already late.


The third use of a colon is for emphasis:

  • There was one thing she loved more than any other: her dog.


7. A dash is used to separate words into statements. There are two common types of dashes: en dash and em dash.

  • En dash: Twice as long as a hyphen, the en dash is a symbol (–) that is used in writing or printing to indicate a range, connections or differentiations, such as 1880-1945 or Princeton-New York trains.
  • Em dash: Longer than the en dash, the em dash can be used in place of a comma, parenthesis, or colon to enhance readability or emphasize the conclusion of a sentence. For example, She gave him her answer No!
    Whether you put spaces around the em dash or not is a style choice. Just be consistent.


8. A hyphen is used to join two or more words together into a compound term and is not separated by spaces. For example, part-time, back-to-back, well-known.


Pupils observe, learn and participate



The pupils are asked to

1. Mention and explain the uses of punctuation marks

- Pupils observe, learn and participate



Pupils are asked to answer question  1-5 on page 106 of the New first aid in English by Angus Maciver

Pupils observe, learn and participate



Pupils are asked to answer question  6-10 on page 106 of the New first aid in English by Angus Maciver

Pupils participate



The teacher marks their books, corrects it and commend the pupils


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