# Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Primary 3

Multiplication patterns

TERM: 2nd Term

WEEK: 2

CLASS: Primary 3

AGE: 8 years

DURATION: 5 periods of 40 minutes each

DATE:

SUBJECT: Mathematics

TOPIC: Multiplication patterns

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to

1. Develop an understanding of the commutative law of multiplication.
2. Understand the rules in multiplication
3. Develop an understanding of the patterns (rules) associated with multiplying by10.

INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES: Explanation, question and answer, demonstration, practical, assessments

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS: Multiplication tables, enlarged multiplication tables for the teacher, array diagram, enlarged array diagram, multiplication cards, videos from source-

PERIOD 1: Assessment

PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITY

PUPIL’S ACTIVITY

STEP 1

ORAL

ASSESSMENTS

The teacher asks questions on counting forwards and backwards

Pupils respond and participate

STEP 2

DISCUSSION

The teacher discusses all the methods used by some learners in the oral assessments(some of the questions are solved on the board by the learners) and addresses any misconceptions that may have risen

Pupils pay attention and participate

STEP 3

WRITTEN ASSESSMENTS

3. Calculate by doubling

 Multiple Double Add Answer 1 2 x 21 20 + 1 + 20 + 1 40 + 2 2 2 x 36 3 2 x 47

4 Solve the problems.

a Stella has 21 shells. She finds another 21 shells. How many shells does she have now?

b Linda has 45 marbles. He wins another 46 marbles. How many marbles does she have now?

Pupils attempt their class work

STEP 4

SUMMARY

The teacher marks the written assessments, corrects were necessary and commends the pupils

PERIOD 2: Multiplication patterns

PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITY

PUPIL’S ACTIVITY

STEP 1

MENTAL MATHS

The teacher begins the lesson with some mental calculations

Calculate

a. 5 x 4=

b. 4 x 5 =

c. 6 x 3 =

d. 3 x 6 =

e. 7 x 2 =

f. 2 x 7 =

g. 8 x 5 =

h. 5 x 8 =

i. 9 x 3 =

j. 3 x 9 =

Pupils respond and participate

STEP 2

CONCEPT

DEVELOPMENT

The teacher

Gives multiplication table to each learner. Also, pastes a big multiplication table on the board.

Asks: What do you notice in the table?

There may be many different answers, e.g.:

- The number increases by 3 in the 3 times table;

4 × 5 and 5 × 4 have the same answer;

- There are four pairs who have the answer 12; or

- If you add the 2 times table and 3 times table, it becomes the 5 times table.

* Check if the statement is correct or not – engage with as many as possible in a meaningful and encouraging way.

NOTE: Learners should present their findings freely. Encourage them to find patterns in their discoveries.

CLASS ACTIVITY

The teacher

Gives each learner an array diagram.

Makes pairs and let one learner show 5 × 3 using his/her array diagram.

Asks: How many groups of dots are there? (3 groups of 5 dots.)

Asks: What do you notice about the total number of dots in the two array diagrams?

(They both have 15 dots).

Asks: Why do 5 × 3 and 3 × 5 have the same number of dots? (If we rotate the array

diagram, it becomes the same arrangement.)

Asks: What can we say about the number sentence from this activity? (When we

calculate 3 × 5 and 5 × 5, the answers are the same).

Asks learners to use array diagrams for the following problems to find if they have the

2 × 4 and 4 × 2

3 × 7 and 7 × 3

ACTIVITY II

The teacher

Gives each pair of learners a multiplication table.

Says: Use the multiplication table to find the answer to 6 × 4. (24)

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 3 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 4 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 5 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 6 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 7 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 8 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 9 9 18 27 36 45 54 63 72 81 90 10 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

• Says: Now see if you can find a different number sentence to make 35. (Learners use

their multiplication table to find 7 × 5 = 35)

• Says: Write both number sentences with answers in your classwork book.

• Asks: What do you notice about the number sentences? (They have the same numbers

but in a different order).

• Repeats the above steps with the following: 3 × 9, 4 × 8, 9 × 6 and 6 × 7.

Pupils pay attention and participate

STEP 3

CLASS-WORK

The teacher gives each pair or each group of learners a set of multiplication cards

of the 1-9 times table with the answers written at the back (these should have been prepared

for previous lessons) In this lesson ask the learners to do one group activity and activity 4.

They must do activity 4 as it consolidates teaching on the commutative law.

Rules of the game

1 Learners work alone.

a Learners shuffle the cards.

b Learners take a number sentence card.

c Learners need to say the answer to the number sentence shown on each card to

themselves.

d Learners check the answers by looking at the back of the card.

2 Learners work in pairs.

a Learners shuffle the cards.

b One learner holds up a number sentence for the second learner to read.

c The second learner must read the number sentence and give the answer.

d Learners check the answers by looking at the back of the card.

e The second learner then holds up a number sentence card for the first learner.

f Keep going until all the cards have been read.

3 Learners work in groups of 3.

a Learners shuffle the cards.

b Learners lay out the cards with the answers facing up.

c One learner calls out a multiple – any one of the 1 to 9 times tables.

d The other 2 learners need to find the card with the answer to the multiplication

number sentence.

e The first learner to find the card gets to keep the card. The learner who has the

most cards at the end wins.

f When there are no more cards, the game can be played again with a different learner calling out the multiplication questions.

4 Learners work alone.

a Learners shuffle the cards.

b Learners lay out the cards with the answers facing up.

c Learners give a number sentence for which the answer is shown.

d Learners check the answers by looking at the back of the card. (Note that they

might find the factors written in the in reverse to what they have said because of the commutative law.)

Pupils attempt their class work

STEP 4

HOME-WORK

1. Draw circles in an array to show the multiple

a. 4 x 5

b. 5 x 4

c. 3 x 6

d. 6 x 3

Pupils attempt their class work

STEP 5

SUMMARY

The teacher summarizes by reminding the pupils about the commutative law of multiplication.

She marks their class works, makes corrections where necessary and commends them positively

PERIOD 3: Patterns in multiplication tables

PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITY

PUPIL’S ACTIVITY

STEP 1

MENTAL MATHS

The teacher begins the lesson with some mental calculations

Calculate

1. 6 x 6 =

2. 7 x 7 =

3. 8 x 7 =

4. 7 x 6 =

5. 8 x 8 =

6. 9 x 8 =

7. 6 x 9 =

8. 8 x 6 =

9. 7 x 9 =

10. 9 x 9 =

Pupils respond and participate

STEP 2

CONCEPT

DEVELOPMENT

The teacher

Places an enlarged multiplication table on the board.

Covers the answer to 5 × 7 as shown below:

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 3 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 4 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 5 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 6 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 7 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 8 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 9 9 18 27 36 45 54 63 72 81 90 10 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Asks: What is the multiplication number sentence for the hidden number? (5 × 7 = ?)

Asks: How did you know that? (Because the block that is covered in the table is in the

5th row and the 7th column – so it must show 5 × 7)

Asks: How do you think we can work out the answer to 5 × 7? (Let learners discuss

ways they could find the answer. Allow learners to suggest ideas to the class.)

There may be many different answers, e.g.:

- The numbers in the 5th row increase by 5 (or 5 is added each time as you go across

the 5th row), so it must be 30 + 5 = 35;

- The numbers in the 7th column increase by 7 (or 7 is added each time as you go

down the 7th column), so it must be 28 + 7 = 35;

It is 5 × 7, which I know is 35.

CLASS ACTIVITY

Gives a multiplication table and some bottle tops to pairs of learners.

Asks one learner to cover a number on the multiplication table with a bottle top.

The other learner can identify the number sentence for the block and work out the answer.

Encourages learners to discuss how they solved the problems.

Pupils pay attention and participate

STEP 3

CLASS-WORK

The teacher gives each pair or each group of learners a set of multiplication cards

for the 1-9 times tables. Learners should have prepared these cards in the previous lessons.

There are 4 activities suggested below – select at least 2 activities to do in this lesson.

Learners will have more cards to play with if they use all of the 1-9 times table cards when

they play the games in this lesson.

Rules of the game

1 Learners work alone.

a Learners shuffle the cards.

b Learners take a number sentence card.

c Learners need to say the answer to the number sentence shown on each card to

themselves.

d Learners check the answers by looking at the back of the card.

2 Learners work in pairs.

a Learners shuffle the cards.

b One learner holds up a number sentence for the second learner to read.

c The second learner must read the number sentence and give the answer.

d The second learner then holds up a number sentence card for the first learner.

e Keep going until all the cards have been read.

3 Learners work in groups of 3.

a Learners shuffle the cards.

b Learners lay out the cards with the answers facing up.

c One learner calls out a multiplication number sentence.

d The other 2 learners need to find the card with the answer to the multiplication

number sentence.

e The first learner to find the correct card gets to keep the card. The learner who

gets the most cards wins.

f When there are no more cards, the game can be played again with a different

learner calling out the multiplication number sentences.

4 Learners work alone.

a Learners shuffle the cards.

b Learners lay out the cards with the answers facing up.

c Learners give a number sentence for which the answer is shown.

d Learners check the answers by looking at the back of the card. (Note that they

might find the factors written in the in reverse to what they have said because

of the commutative law.)

Pupils attempt their class work

STEP 4

HOME-WORK

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 3 3 6 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 4 4 8 12 16 24 28 32 36 40 5 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 45 50 6 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 7 7 14 21 28 35 49 56 63 70 8 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 9 9 27 36 45 54 63 72 81 90 10 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Write the number sentences for each blank space

Pupils attempt their class work

STEP 5

SUMMARY

The teacher summarizes by reminding the pupils how to identify patterns (rules) in multiplication number sentences

She marks their class works, makes corrections where necessary and commends them positively

PERIOD 4: Multiply by 10

PRESENTATION

TEACHER’S ACTIVITY

PUPIL’S ACTIVITY

STEP 1

MENTAL MATHS

The teacher begins the lesson with some mental calculations

Count forwards in 10s up to 100 and backwards in 10s from 100 to 10

Pupils respond and participate

STEP 2

CONCEPT

DEVELOPMENT

The teacher

Draws the following table on the board.

• In today’s lesson we will only focus on the second and third scores (i.e. the rows containing the number 10).

 SCORE DARTS TOTAL 0 0 4 10 40 10 3 30 0 7 0

Tells learners that Sophia played a darts game and that he got the results shown in the

table above.

Asks: What's the total score for 10 darts with a score of 4 for each dart? (Encourages the learners to discuss how they could work out how many points were scored in total)

10 groups of 4 is 40; 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 = 40; 9 × 4 is 36 which means if

we add 4 more we have the score 10 × 4 = 40)

• Notes that in this problem the 10 is the number of darts, 10 × 4 = 40.

• Asks: What's the total score for 3 darts with a score of 10 for each dart? (Discuss again.

3 groups of 10 is 30; 10 + 10 + 10 = 30; 3 × 10 = 30)

• Notes that in this problem the 10 is the score per dart, 3 × 10 = 30.

CLASS ACTIVITY

The teacher

• Lets learners work in groups of 3.

One learner in the group can call out any number from 1 – 9.

The other two learners then need to quickly give a number sentence in which

they multiply that number by 10 and say two ways you could write a number

sentence for that.

For example:

Learner 1 calls out 6.

Learners 2 and 3 quickly give number sentences and their answers

10 × 6 = 60

6 × 10 = 60

• Notes that learners could do this orally, or they could write the number sentences with

The first learner to say their number sentence and answer correctly gets to be the learner

who chooses the next number to call out.

- This way the learners will take turns calling out the numbers and coming up with number sentences and answers which include the number 10.

Pupils pay attention and participate

STEP 3

CLASS-WORK

1. Write the number sentences with answers

 Repeated addition Number sentence 1 5 groups of 2 2 3 groups of 9 3 6 + 6 + 6 + 6 + 6 + 6 = 4 1 group of 10 5 8 groups of 4 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 6 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 7 10 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 10 8 5 groups of 7

2 Solve the problems:

a I have 3 N10 bank notes. How much money do I have altogether?

b I have 7 N10 notes. How much money do I have altogether?

Pupils attempt their class work

STEP 4

HOME-WORK

Write the number sentences with answers

 Repeatedaddition Numbersentence 1 3 groups of 10 10 + 10 + 10 = 2 4 groups of 7 4 x 7 = 28 3 6 + 6 + 6 = 4 10 groups of 4 5 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 =

Pupils attempt their class work

STEP 5

SUMMARY

The teacher summarizes by reminding the pupils how to multiply with 10 by identifying patterns (rules).

She marks their class works, makes corrections where necessary and commends them positively

PERIOD 5: Weekly Test/consolidations

TEACHER’S ACTIVITY: The teacher revises all the concepts treated from period 1-4 and gives the pupils follow through exercises, quiz and tests . She marks the exercises, makes corrections and commends the pupils positively.

PUPIL’S ACTIVITY: The pupils work on the worksheets and exercises given by the teacher individually

CONSOLIDATION

Rules for the SNAP game

The teacher gives each pair of learners a full set of 1-9 multiplication cads.

Deal out the cards evenly between 2 learners.

Each learner must lay down a card on the desk, number sentence side facing up.

When the cards have the same numbers in a different order, the learners

must say SNAP.

For example these two cards represent the same number:

 4 x 5

 5 x 4

The first learner to say SNAP keeps all the cards that have already been turned over.

The game is over when one learner has finished all their cards.