# Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Primary 2

Capacity

TERM: 2nd Term

WEEK: 7

CLASS: Primary 2

AGE: 7 years

DURATION: 5 periods of 40 minutes each

DATE:

SUBJECT: Mathematics

TOPIC: Capacity

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to

1. Compare the capacity of various containers using non-standard units
2. Measure the capacity of various containers using the standard unit of capacity(litre).
3. Solve simple addition and subtraction capacity problems.
4. Estimate and measure the capacity of various containers using the standard unit of capacity (litre).

INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES: Explanation, question and answer, demonstration, practical

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS: Plastic spoons, polystyrene/plastic cups, plastic bottles, water, sand, Clean, empty household containers: 1 litre, 2 litre, 1,5 litre, 5 litre (make sure the containers are cleaned out and don’t have any traces of the content), Empty bottles with a capacity of 1 l, 2 l, and 3 l, 1 litre measuring jug, cup

PERIOD 1: Capacity using non-standard units

 PRESENTATION TEACHER’S ACTIVITY PUPIL’S ACTIVITY STEP 1MENTAL MATHS The teacher begins the lesson with some mental calculationsWhich number is 10 more than1 542 383 614 495 58Which number is 10 less than6 357 468 599 6610 74 Pupils respond and participate STEP 2CONCEPTDEVELOPMENT The teacherTakes the class outside for this activity.Note: You can use sand instead of water.Each group of learners needs a teaspoon and a cup to do this activity.• Gives each group an extra container filled with water.• Explains to the learners that they are going to use the spoons to fill the cups (half full and full) with water.• Lets them first estimate how many spoonfuls they will use to do this.You may need to revise the term estimate with the learners. Refer to the multilingual dictionary to assist if necessary.• Asks the learners to now fill their cups halfway.• They need to count how many spoonfuls they use to do this.• The learners now compare their own estimation and answer, and then compare answers within their group or between groups. CLASS ACTIVITYThe teacherTakes the learners back into the class for the second activity of the lesson.• Draws a picture of a bottle and a cup on the board.• Shows the learners up to where 1 cup of water will fill the bottle.They now have to work out how many cups of water were used to fill the other bottles.• Asks: Which unit would be easier to use to measure the water in the bottles – a spoonor a cup? (A cup. Discuss.) Pupils pay attention and participate STEP 3CLASS-WORK In this activity you could allow learners to work with sand or water, depending on what is easier for you.1 How many cups of sand do you think will fill up a 2 l bottle? __________ (Estimate.)2 Fill a 2 l bottle with sand and compare your estimation with the answer.__(8 standard cups.)__3 Draw this bottle in your book.Now draw the following and write how many spoonfuls of water were used: Pupils attempt their class work STEP 4HOME-WORK How many spoons of water/sand are there in each bottle? The first one has one spoon. The pupils writes it in their homework book STEP 5SUMMARY The teacher summarizes by reminding the pupils that in this lesson we have learnt to estimate and compare the capacity of various containers She marks their class works, makes corrections where necessary and commends them positively

PERIOD 2: The standard unit of capacity

 PRESENTATION TEACHER’S ACTIVITY PUPIL’S ACTIVITY STEP 1MENTAL MATHS The teacher begins the lesson with some mental calculationsWhat is 10 more than1 84  2 65  3 33  4 44  5 1   What is 10 less than6 537 108 569 7110 16 Pupils respond and participate STEP 2CONCEPTDEVELOPMENT The teacherPlaces empty containers in the front of the class: 1 litre, 2 litres, 1,5 litres, 5 litres. (Try to find all of these containers and bring them to class.)• Discusses the different sizes of the containers with the learners.Some containers are the same height, but one holds more than the other because it iswider/“fatter” than the other.• Discusses the labels on the containers and their meaning.ACTIVITY IIThe teacherNow give the learners a mixed collection of empty containers (such as those illustrated) one by one, and ask them to compare these to the empty containers above.• Hands the containers to different learners in the class or let individual learners come tothe front to participate in this comparison activity.• Learners should test if they are correct by pouring water or sand from the one container to the other. Pupils pay attention and participate STEP 3CLASS-WORK 1 How do we write litre in short?2 Use the same containers as for the class activity. Put them in order from the containerthat holds the most to the container that holds the least.3 Draw the following objects:a Containers that hold less than 1 litre.b Containers that hold 1 litre.c Containers that hold more than 1 litre.4 Mom buys 2 litres of milk. There are 3 people in our family. Each of them drinks 1 litreof milk for breakfast every day. Did Mom buy enough milk? (No, because we need3 litres.) Pupils attempt their class work STEP 4HOME-WORK 1 Draw 3 containers and label them as follows: holds less than 1 litre, holds 1 litre, and holds more than one litre.2 Draws pictures of three items from your kitchen cupboard or fridge and say if it holdsmore or less or exactly 1 litre.3 You have invited 7 friends to your house. Would you buy 1 litre of juice for them todrink and why? The pupils writes it in their homework book STEP 5SUMMARY The teacher summarizes by reminding the pupils that in today’s lesson we have learnt to measure the capacity of various containers using litres. She marks their class works, makes corrections where necessary and commends them positively

PERIOD 3: Capacity: addition and subtraction problems

PERIOD 4 : Working with capacity

 PRESENTATION TEACHER’S ACTIVITY PUPIL’S ACTIVITY STEP 1MENTAL MATHS The teacher begins the lesson with some mental calculationsWhat is 5 more than1 45  2 60 + 6  3 50 + 9  4 30 + 6  5 70 + 0  What is 5 less than6 657 30 + 98 60 + 19 30 + 810 50 + 3 Pupils respond and participate STEP 2CONCEPTDEVELOPMENT The teacher• Places a set of empty bottles in the front of the class.• Discusses with the class how we can use a litre measuring jug to measure amounts of liquid.• Discusses and estimates with the learners how much water would fill each bottle (using jugs).• Records the estimates on the board.• Fills each of the bottles with water, using the litre jug.• Counts the number of litres that are needed to fill each bottle.• Record how many litres were needed to fill each bottle.• The number of litres will vary depending on the size of the bottle.• Records the measurements on the board.• Compares the recorded estimates and the measurements. CLASS ACTIVITYThe teacher• Using the 1 litre measuring jug and a cup, discuss and estimate how many cups of water would be needed to fill the jug.• Records the estimate on the board.• Asks a learner to fill the jug using cups. (It should take 4 cups of water to fill a 1 litre measuring jug.)• Records the measurement on the board.• Asks: How many cups would be needed to fill a 2 litre bottle? (Learners should estimate.)• Asks a learner to fill the 2 litre bottle using cups. (It should take 8 cups of water to fill a 2 litre bottle.)• Records the estimate and measurement on the board.• Discusses the difference between the estimates and the actual measurement if there were differences.• Talks about the need for careful estimates.• Asks the learners how many cups would be needed to fill a 3 litre bottle? (Learners should estimate.)• Records the estimate on the board.• Asks a learner to fill the 3 litre bottles using cups. (It should take 12 cups of water to fill a 3 litre bottle.).• Records the measurement on the board.• Discusses the difference between the estimates and the actual measurement if there were differences.• Discusses any generalisations they can make based on this exercise, such as:There are 4 cups in 1 litre.There are 8 cups in 2 litres.There are 12 cups in 3 litres.• Takes the discussion further to see if learners can apply this knowledge. Asks:How many cups in 4 litres? (16 cups.)How many cups in 5 litres? (20 cups.)How many cups in 10 litres? (40 cups.) Pupils pay attention and participate STEP 3CLASS-WORK 1 Write the litre measurements from smallest to biggest: 1 l, 5 l, 3 l, 10 l and 2 l. 2 Underline the container that would hold the most water:a Swimming poolb Bathc Bucket 3 Underline the container that would hold the least water:a Bucketb Cupc Teaspoon 4 Estimate how many litres are needed to fill:a A sink? __________b A bath? ____________c A bucket? __________ 5 Joshua has collected 3 l of water from the tap. His mother asked him to collect 10 l. How many more litres must he collect? Pupils attempt their class work STEP 4HOME-WORK Draw and label 5 objects that can hold more water than your water bottle. The pupils writes it in their homework book STEP 5SUMMARY The teacher summarizes by reminding the pupils that in today’s lesson we have learnt to measure and estimate the capacity of various containers. She marks their class works, makes corrections where necessary and commends them positively

PERIOD 5: Weekly Test/consolidations

TEACHER’S ACTIVITY: The teacher revises all the concepts treated from period 1-4 and gives the pupils follow through exercises, quiz and tests. She marks the exercises, makes corrections and commends the pupils positively.

PUPIL’S ACTIVITY: The pupils work on the worksheets and exercises give by the teacher individually

CONSOLIDATION

1 Circle the container that will hold less water.

2 Draw the following objects:

a A container that holds 1 litre.

b A container that holds more than 1 litre.

3 George buys 1 litre of milk and Dad buys another 4 litres. How many litres altogether?

4 Can you estimate how many litres are needed to fill:

a A bucket? __________

b A sink? _______________

5 Musa buys two litres of Fanta and Venita buys another 2 litres of Fanta. How many litres of Fanta do they have together?