# Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Junior Secondary 3

Machine motion - Motion in engineering system

TERM – 2ND TERM

WEEK NINE

Class: Junior Secondary School 3

Age: 14 years

Duration: 40 minutes of 5 periods each

Date:

Subject: BASIC TECHNOLOGY

Topic: MACHINE MOTION – MOTION IN ENGINEERING SYSTEM

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to

1. Define motion in engineering
2. Identify the types of motion
3. Describe the conversions between the two types of motion
4. Discuss the applications of motion.

INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES: Identification, explanation, questions and answers,

demonstration, videos from source

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS: Videos, loud speaker, textbook, pictures,

INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES

PERIOD 1-2

 PRESENTATION TEACHER’S ACTIVITY STUDENT’S ACTIVITY STEP 1 INTRODUCTION The teacher explains the meaning of motion in engineering. Students pay attention STEP 2 EXPLANATION Teacher identify and discuss the types of motion Teacher discusses the conversion between the two types of motion Students pay attention and participate STEP 3 DEMONSTRATION Teacher discusses the applications of motion in engineering. Students pay attention and participate STEP 4 NOTE TAKING The teacher writes a summarized note on the board The students copy the note in their books

NOTE

MACHINE MOTION –MOTION IN ENGINEERING SYSTEM

Motion in Engineering

Motion refers to the change in position of an object with respect to its surroundings over time. It is a fundamental concept that plays a crucial role in various engineering disciplines, including mechanical, civil, aerospace, and robotics engineering.

Types of Motion

1. Linear Motion: Linear motion is the motion of an object in a straight line, where all points on the object move the same distance in the same direction. For example, the motion of a car along a straight road, an elevator moving up and down vertically, or a train traveling along a straight track.
2. Rotary Motion: Rotary motion involves the rotation of an object around an axis or a point. In this type of motion, all parts of the object move in circular paths around a central point. For example the spinning of a wheel, the rotation of a fan blade, or the turning of a key in a lock.

Conversion of motion in engineering

The conversion between rotary (circular) motion and linear (straight-line) motion is often required in various engineering applications due to the specific requirements of different systems.

Conversion from Rotary to Linear Motion

1. Translation of Power: In many mechanical systems, power is generated or transmitted in the form of rotary motion (e.g., from an electric motor or an engine). To perform useful work, this rotary motion often needs to be translated into linear motion. For example, in a car engine, the rotational motion of the crankshaft is converted into linear motion by the pistons.
2. Conveyors and Material Handling: Linear motion is often needed in material handling systems, such as conveyor belts. Converting rotary motion to linear motion ensures efficient movement of materials in a straight line.
3. Pumps and Compressors: In some pumps and compressors, converting rotary motion to linear motion is necessary to generate fluid flow or compression. Reciprocating motion, which is a form of linear motion, is often used in these applications.

Conversion from Linear to Rotary Motion

1. Rotary Engines: Some applications, such as rotary engines or rotary pumps, require converting linear motion into rotary motion. This is achieved by mechanisms like the rotor in a Wankel engine, where linear motion is transformed into rotary motion.
2. Linear Motors: In certain scenarios, linear motors are used to directly convert linear motion into rotary motion. These motors can offer advantages in terms of simplicity and efficiency for specific applications.
3. Printing and Scanning Devices: Linear-to-rotary motion conversion is seen in printers and scanners, where the linear movement of print heads or scanning elements is transformed into rotary motion for the paper feed or image generation.

Application of Motion

Motion plays a crucial role in engineering, and its applications are diverse across various disciplines. Here are some key applications of motion in engineering:

1. Motion principles are fundamental in designing engines, transmissions, and suspension systems for automobiles, ensuring efficient and safe movement on roads.
2. Motion is employed in conveyor belts to transport materials efficiently along production lines.
3. Motion principles are applied in the design of lathes, milling machines, and other machine tools for shaping and cutting materials. e.g, Pumps and Compressors
4. Motion is harnessed in generators, turbines, and other power-generating systems to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy.
5. Motion principles are crucial in designing gears, cams, and linkages for various machines.
6. Understanding motion is essential for designing suspension systems, steering mechanisms, and optimizing the handling characteristics of vehicles.
7. Motion analysis is vital in designing aircraft and spacecraft for stability, control, and performance.

EVALUATION: 1. Define motion in engineering

1. Identify and discuss the types of motion you know
2. Describe the conversion of rotary motion to linear motion
3. Stat 5 applications of motion

CLASSWORK: As in evaluation

CONCLUSION: The teacher commends the students positively