Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Junior Secondary 3

Building components II - Windows, doors and roofs



 Class: Junior Secondary School 3

Age: 14 years

Duration: 40 minutes of 5 periods each




SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to

  1. Define window and identify its types
  2. Identify the uses of windows
  3. Define door and identify its types
  4. Identify the uses of doors
  5. Define roof and identify its types
  6. Identify the uses of roofs

INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES: Identification, explanation, questions and answers,

demonstration, videos from source

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS: Videos, loud speaker, textbook, pictures,









The teacher define a window and discuss the various types of windows

Teacher explain the uses of windows

Students pay




The teacher define a door and discuss the various types of doors

Teacher explains the uses of doors

Students pay

attention and





The teacher define a roof and discuss the various types of roofs

Teacher explains the uses of roof

Students pay

attention and




The teacher writes a summarized

note on the board

The students

copy the note in

their books




A window is an opening in a wall of a building, typically with glass or other transparent material, allowing light to enter and providing a view to the outside. Windows come in various types, including single-hung, double-hung, casement, sliding, and more, each serving specific purposes in terms of functionality and aesthetics.

Types of windows

1. Single-Hung Windows: Features a movable lower sash while the upper sash remains fixed.

2. Double-Hung Windows: Both upper and lower sashes are movable, allowing for versatile ventilation.

3. Casement Windows: Hinged on one side and opens outward with a crank handle.

4. Sliding Windows: Horizontally sliding panes for easy operation and contemporary aesthetics.

5. Bay Windows: Project outward from the exterior wall, creating a bay or nook inside.

Uses of windows

Windows serve various practical and aesthetic purposes in buildings:

  1. Windows allow sunlight to enter, reducing the need for artificial lighting and creating a more pleasant indoor environment.
  2. Opening windows enables fresh air circulation, helping regulate indoor temperature and improving air quality.
  3. Windows provide views of the surrounding environment, connecting occupants with the outdoors and enhancing the overall living or working experience.
  4. Different window styles contribute to the architectural aesthetics of a building, enhancing its visual appeal.
  5. Well-designed windows with proper insulation contribute to energy efficiency by minimizing heat transfer between the interior and exterior.
  6. Windows can serve as emergency exits, providing an alternative means of escape in case of fire or other emergencies.


A door is a hinged or otherwise movable barrier that allows entry into or exit from a building, room, or other enclosed space. They can be made of various materials, including wood, metal, glass, or a combination of these, and often include hardware like handles, locks, and hinges for functionality and security.

Types of doors

 There are several types of doors commonly used in buildings:

  1. Entry Doors: Typically, the main door leading into a building, designed for security and aesthetics.
  2. Interior Doors: Separate rooms within a building and come in various styles like panel, flush, or French doors.
  3. Sliding Doors: Open horizontally by sliding along a track, often used for closets or room dividers.
  4. French Doors: Double doors with glass panels, often used for entrances or interior room divisions.
  5. Bi-fold Doors: Fold in half to open, commonly used for closets or small storage areas.

Uses of door

Doors serve various essential purposes in buildings:

  1. Doors provide a means to enter and exit rooms, buildings, or enclosed spaces.
  2. Doors offer a barrier that ensures privacy within individual rooms or spaces.
  3. Doors, especially exterior ones, contribute to the security of a building by restricting unauthorized access.
  4. Different door styles and designs enhance the overall aesthetics of a building's interior and exterior.
  5. Doors allow for controlled ventilation by opening or closing them to regulate airflow.
  6. Insulated doors contribute to maintaining a comfortable indoor temperature by minimizing heat transfer.
  7. Doors with locks enhance safety and provide a sense of security for occupants.


A roof is the top covering of a building or structure, providing protection from weather elements such as rain, snow, sunlight, and wind. Roofs are designed to shed water and prevent it from entering the building. Roofs can be constructed from materials like shingles, tiles, metal, or concrete, depending on factors such as climate, aesthetics, and budget.

Types of roof

 The following are some common types of roofs:

1. Gable Roof: It is triangular-shaped roof with two sloping sides meeting at a ridge.

2. Flat Roof: It is a virtually horizontal, often used in modern architecture.

3. Mansard Roof: Has four sides with a double slope on each side, creating a distinct profile.

4. Shed Roof: A single, sloping plane, commonly used for additions or modern designs.

5. Hambrel Roof: It is similar to a mansard roof but with a steeper lower slope.

Uses of roof

Roofs serve several crucial functions in a building:

  1. Roofs shield the interior of a building from weather elements such as rain, snow, wind, and sunlight.
  2. Roofs provide structural support to the building, distributing its weight and ensuring stability.
  3. Insulated roofs help regulate indoor temperatures by minimizing heat transfer between the interior and exterior.
  4. The design and material of the roof contribute to the overall aesthetics of a building, enhancing its visual appeal.
  5. Roofs are designed to shed water efficiently, preventing water accumulation and potential damage to the structure.
  6. Well-designed roofs with appropriate insulation can contribute to energy efficiency by reducing heating and cooling needs.
  7. Roofs can serve as platforms for solar panels, harnessing renewable energy from the sun.
  8. Roof design can influence natural ventilation, helping to regulate airflow within the building.

EVALUATION: 1. Mention 5 uses of windows

  1. Identify and discuss 5 types of doors you know
  2. What is a roof?
  3. Mention 5 uses of roofs.

CLASSWORK: As in evaluation

CONCLUSION: The teacher commends the students positively