Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Junior Secondary School 2

Browse through topics for Junior Secondary 2 1st, 2nd and 3rd Terms, All Weeks, All Subjects

Week: 7

Class: Junior Secondary School 2

Term: 1st Term

Age: 13 years

Duration: 40 minutes of 2 periods


Subject: Agriculture

Topic:         Cultural Practices

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to

  1. Describe the pre-planting operations

INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES: Identification, explanation, questions and answers, demonstration, videos from source

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS: Videos, loud speaker, textbook, pictures








The teacher revises the previous lesson on sexual propagation

Students pay attention



The teacher explains the meaning of pre-planting operations

Students pay attention and participates



She then discusses each of the pre-planting operations

Students pay attention and participate



The teacher writes a summarized note on the board

The students copy the note in their books




Pre-planting operations are activities carried out before crop cultivation

takes place

Pre-planting operations include

  1. Choice of site

Guidelines for choice of site

  1. it should be near enough to water sources and good transportation route
  2. the land should be leveled or a gentle slope
  3. soil should be either loamy or drained sandy loam soil
  4. soil should not be water logged or over dry
  5. climatic and weather conditions should be considered
  6. market survey of the form of demand in the area should be carried out


  1. Surveying. This is the determination by measurement, the position and

features of the farm

Importance of surveying

  1. it helps to determine the nature and types of soil on the farm
  2. it helps to determine the amount of farm inputs e.g land, chemical, seeds

etc required


  1. Clearing: This is the recovery of farm land from bushes through the use

of axes, hoes and cutlasses for small farms and bulldozers and tractors on

large farmlands


  1. Stumping: This is the removal of stubborn and big roots by digging them

up from the soil so that they will not disturb equipment during harrowing

and ridging exercises. Stumping is usually done in dry season.


  1. Plotting: plotting is the marking out of the area to be cultivated using a

ranging pole peg and a measuring tape.

 Factors that affect plotting

  1. soil and water conservation practices
  2. topography of the area
  3. soil types and nutrient status
  4. location of farm roads and paths


  1. Tilling: it is the breaking and loosening of the soil to correct its depth. It

can be done manually using hoes and mechanically using tractors, disc

plough or ridger.

Advantages of tilling

  1. it conserves soil moisture and improves soil structure
  2. buries some weeds and other cleared materials into the soil
  3. it exposes crop pests

Tilling can be categorized into primary tillage- harrowing and secondary

tillage- ploughing

Ploughing: it is the breaking up of soil into large clods. Ploughing is

followed by harrowing.

Harrowing: It is the breaking up of soil into smaller clods after the initial ploughing in readiness for ridging


  1. Ridging: it is tilling a long, narrow elevated section of the earth’s surface

in readiness for planting. They can be made manually, with a tractor

mounted ridger or a reversible disc plough


  1. Seed Selection: Viable seeds should be selected in order to have a good

product yield. It is suggested that the seeds be winnowed to remove the

chaff on the seed


  1. Nursery and Nursery selection: it is a temporary raising of crops in a

section of the farm in preparation for transplanting into the main garden.

However, seedlings can be raised in nursery trays, empty boxes/pots,

empty cartons and seed trays.

Notes on Nursery

  1. watering should be done daily during the dry season
  2. nurseries should be located near the farm to save cost and time
  3. Polythene bags are used for putting the seedlings because they are

cheap and easy to carry during transplanting

4. it is important to protect nurseries from rainfall and sunshine at the early

stages of their development

5. When the plants have reached the 4-6 leaf stage or one month of age in

the nursery


EVALUATION:    1. Define the term “Pre-planting operations”

  1. Discuss all the pre-planting operations

CLASSWORK: As in evaluation

CONCLUSION: The teacher commends the students positively