Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Junior Secondary School 1

Browse through topics for Junior Secondary 1 1st, 2nd and 3rd Terms, All Weeks, All Subjects

Term: 1st Term

Week: 3

Class: Junior Secondary School 1

Age: 12 years

Duration: 40 minutes of 2 periods each


Subject:    Social Studies

Topic:-      Physical environment

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to

  1. Explain the meaning of “environment” and “physical environment”
  2. Discuss the types of physical environment
  3. Outline the features of the physical environment

INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES: Identification, explanation, questions and answers, demonstration, videos from source

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS: Videos, loud speaker, textbook, pictures








The teacher revises the previous lesson on the objectives and importance of social studies

Students pay attention



She introduces the new topic by explaining the meaning of environment and physical environment

Students pay attention and participates



She discusses the types of physical environment and its features


Students pay attention and participate



The teacher writes a summarized note on the board

The students copy the note in their books




Environment is the sum total of the surroundings.


There are two forms of environment

  1. physical environment
  2. social environment


Physical environment is the part of the environment that is physical.


Physical environment is divided into two

  1. Natural physical environment: It consists of things that occur naturally

and found within the physical surrounding e.g lakes, streams, mountains,

rivers, oceans, weather, landforms, etc

  1. Man-made or artificial physical environment: It consists of objects or

things that are made by man and found within the physical surroundings of

man e.g bridges, tables, buildings, skyscrapers, roads, flovers etc



  1. Weather: this is the atmospheric condition of a place at a particular time.

Elements of weather are wind, temperature, humidity, cloud, rainfall,

pressure and sunshine


  1. Climate: This is the regular average weather condition of a place over a

considerable long period of about 35 years. While weather changes are

observed, measured and recorded everyday, climatic changes are

observed and recorded over a long period of time.


  1. Highlands: also called UPLANDS is an area of hilly mountainous land

ranging up to 500-600meters. Some common examples of Highlands in

Nigeria are Udi hills, Adamawa Highlands, Mandara mountains, kurukuru

highland etc


  1. Lowlands: This is an area where the land is at, near or below the level of

the sea where there are no mountains or large hills.

Lowland areas in Nigeria are mostly along the coast of River Niger, River

Benue and the Niger Delta areas  


  1. Plains: It is defined as a large area of flatland with few trees. Some

examples of plains in Nigeria include Sokoto plains, Cross River plains,

Borno plains etc


  1. Mountains: These are larger land forms that stretches above the

surrounding land in a limited area in the form of a peak. Mountains are very

highlands which are over 300 meters (10,000 feet) above sea level. Some

examples of mountains in Nigeria include Chappal Waddi mountain in

Taraba state, Mambilla Plateau in Taraba state, Mount Dimlang in

Adamawa state, Obudu Plateau in Cross River state etc


  1. Valley: Also known as DALE, it refers to a land lying between or

bounded by two hills or mountains, often with a river running through


  1. Rivers: It is a large water course (usually fresh water) flowing towards an

ocean, lake, sea or another river. Some examples of rivers in Nigeria are

Imo river, Anambra river, Bonny river, Taraba river etc


  1. Lakes: This is a large area of still-water that is surrounded by land.

Rivers or streams flow while lakes do not flow. Some examples of lakes in

Nigeria are Oguta lake, Kainji lake, Agulu lake etc.


  1. Vegetations: It is defined as the general plant life and ground cover

provided by plants.

EVALUATION:   1. Explain the meaning of

  1. environment
  2. physical environment
  3. Discuss the features of the physical environment

CLASSWORK: As in evaluation

CONCLUSION: The teacher commends the students positively