Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Senior Secondary School 2










Cakes for occasions are decorated by coating them with icing sugar.  This process is known as 

“Icing”.  The color of the icing sugar is basically white, this can be enhanced by the use of food 

coloring.  Icing sugar can also be used to make different designs on the cake.  There are rules 

which should be followed or borne in mind when icing cakes some of them are: 

  1. Use good quality ingredients.  The icing sugar must be sieved to obtain very fine powder crush it first if necessary and then rub through a dry sieve.
  2. Dry and clean utensils must be used.
  3. Flavoring and coloring must be done delicately, that is avoid strong colouring and flavoring as they make iced cakes look cheap and inferior.
  4. Icing for coating should be slightly softer than that for piping.
  5. The cake to be iced must be firm and all located crumbs removed before icing.
  6. If icing is left standing it must be covered with damp cloth.
  7. When sandwiching two or more layers of cakes together there should not be gaps to avoid difficulty.
  8. Colors and flavorings should harmonize.


Recipes for icing

Glace Icing


250g sugar

3 table spoon warm water

Flavoring and coloring (optional)


  1. Put liquid into a small clean basin.
  2. Add the sugar by spoonfuls, beating with a small wooden spoon.
  3. Add coloring and flavoring if used.
  4. Heat over a small saucepan of hot water, adding a little more liquid or sugar if necessary, to make the icing a coating consistency which should look smooth and glossy.
  5. Be careful not to overheat it or it becomes dull.
  6. Use at once.


For chocolate glace icing 

Add a dissent spoon grated chocolate or cocoa powder and one additional table spoon water.

Mix the chocolate or cocoa with water and bring to the boil.

Cool, add the icing sugar and proceed as for glace icing.  



List the ingredients for glace icing.


Butter icing


250g icing sugar

100g margarine or butter flavoring and coloring  (optional)



  1. Sieve the icing sugar cream the fat and work in the sieved sugar gradually.
  2. Mix well, add flavoring and coloring if used.
  3. Keep it cool and firm.


Chocolate butter icing

Take out 1 tablespoon of sieved sugar and substitute 1 table spoon cocoa or chocolate powder 

sieve it with the sugar to distribute it evenly.  Cream in butter.


Royal Icing 


500g icing sugar

2-3 eggs

1 dessert spoon lemon juice 

A drop of liquid blue, if a very white icing is required 



  1. Spread a sheet of plain white paper on a board, to prevent any discoloration.  Sieve the icing sugar through a fine sieve on to the board.  Sieve several times until it is quite smooth.
  2. Put it in a bowl, add the lemon juice and blue coloring and mix well.
  3. Lightly beat the egg whites, add gradually, working the mixture well all the time with a clean wooden spoon.  Add only enough egg white to give a stiff but beatable paste.
  4. Beat briskly until it is perfectly smooth and glossy.



  1. Bake a moderate size cake.
  2. Using any of the methods for decorating cakes ice and decorate the cake baked.

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