Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Senior Secondary School 2

Flour mixtures, creaming, rubbing-in etc.







TOPIC: Flour mixtures, creaming, rubbing-in etc.


The higher the proportion of fat and eggs to flour, the richer the cake.  Therefore the richness of a cake depends mainly on the proportion of fat and eggs to flour used.


The methods of making cakes include:

(1)    Creaming method

(2)    Rubbing – in method

(3)    Whisking method

(4)    Melting method


  1. Creaming Method:  Both the fat and sugar which are used in equal amount are beaten together until creamy, cakes which are produced using this method include wedding cakes, birthday cakes, Christmas cakes, Victoria sandwich and queen cakes etc.


  1. Rubbing-in method: In this method the fat is rubbed into the flour with the finger tips until the mixture resembles bread crumbs or fine garri.  Plain cakes, buns etc. are produced using this method.


  1. Whisking method:  The eggs and sugar are whisked together until thick and frothy.  The flour is then folded in lightly.  Sponge cakes are produced using this method.


  1. Melting method: This method is used for making ginger bread.  The fat is melted together with sugar or syrup.



  1. State four methods for making cakes.
  2. Explain two of the methods stated above.


Recipe for Rubbing-in method.


Ingredients            quantities

Flour                200g

Margarine            50g

Milk or water            125 ml

Baking powder            10g

Castor sugar            25-50g



  1. Sieve the flour, baking powder and salt.
  2. Rub in the fat to a sandy texture.
  3. Make a well in the centre.
  4. Add the sugar and the liquid.
  5. Dissolve the sugar in the liquid.
  6. Gradually incorporate the flour mix lightly.
  7. Roll out two rounds 1cm (1/2 in) thick.
  8. Place on a greased baking sheet
  9. Cut across half way through the rounds with a large knife.
  10. Milk wash and in a moderate oven 15 – 20 min.


Creaming method

Large fruit cake

Ingredients             Quantity

Flour                200g            80z

Margarine            125g            50z

Glace cherries            50g            20z

Eggs                2-3

Chopped peel            100g            40z

Castor sugar            125g            50z

Fruits-currents, sultanas        200g            80z

Almonds            50g            20z

Mixed spice            ½ tablespoon   

Baking powder            ½ tablespoon



  1. Cream fat and sugar until soft and fluffy.
  2. Gradually add the beaten eggs, mix well.
  3. Fold in the sieved flour, washed and dried fruit, chopped cherries, spice and peel, combine lightly.
  4. Place in a lightly greased 14cm (17 Inc) cake tin lined with greased greaseproof paper.
  5. Place the almond on top, whole, sliced or chopped.
  6. Bake Regulo 3 (1500C) for approx.  ¾ hr.
  7. Reduce the heat to Regulo 1 (1200C).  Cover with a sheet of paper.  Bake for  further 1 ¼ hr approx.


Test by inserting a thin needle or skewer in the centre if the cake is cooked it should come out 

 Clean, if it is not cooked a little raw cake mixture sticks to the needle.


When baking, avoid slamming the oven door.  Open and close it gently.  An inrush of cold air 

checks the rising and may cause the mixture to rise unevenly.  Moving or shaking the cake before 

it has set will cause it to sink in the middle.


Whisking method:

Genoese sponge:

Ingredients            Quantities

Eggs                4

Castor sugar            100g        40z

Flour                100g        40z

Butter                50g



  1. Whisk the eggs and sugar with a balloon whisk in a bowl over a pan of hot water.
  2. Continue until the mixture is light, creamy, double in bulk.
  3. Remove from the heat and whisk until cold and thick (ribbon stage)
  4. Fold in the flour very gently.
  5. Fold in the melted butter very gently.
  6. Place in a greased floured Genoese mould.
  7. Bake in a moderately hot oven (2000C – 2300C) approx 30 min.


Melting method

Basic Recipe

Ingredients            Quantities

Flour                450g

Sugar                225g

Egg                1

Milk                300ml

Magazine            175g

Baking powder        1 tablespoon (leveled)

Bicarbonate of soda        1 tablespoon (leveled)

Treacle or syrup        350g

Salt                1 tablespoon



  1. Grease and line the tin.

    Sieve all dry ingredients together.

  1. Gently heat the fat, sugar, treacle or syrup together till liquid.  Do not allow the mixture to become too hot.
  2. Warm the milk, beat the egg,
  3. Combine all the ingredients.  Mix thoroughly and pour mixture into the prepared cake tin.
  4. Bake in a slow oven for 1 ½ hrs or until the cake is done.


Ginger bread

To basic recipe add

1 tablespoon ground ginger

50g candied peel or sultanas (boil chopped ginger in syrup or ½ hr, drain before using) sift ground 

ginger with flour.  Add chopped ginger to dry ingredients.  Follow instruction for basic recipe.



List two methods for making cake and types of cakes that can be baked using these methods.



TOPIC: Basic Methods for cake making

Reference Book: Students’ cookery book by Enid Wright page 160-172



  1. Large fruit cake is prepared using _____ method.

    (a) Whisking method    (b) creaming method (c) frying method

  1. Genoese sponge is bake using _____ method.

    (a) Whisking     (b) rubbing in        (c) creaming

  1. Ginger bread is prepared using _______ method.

    (a) whisking     (b) Rubbing in          (c) melting

  1. Scores are prepared using _____ method.

    (a) Rubbing in        (b) Whisking        (c) Moulding

  1. We have _____ basic methods of preparing cake.

    (a) Ten        (b) Four     (c) one



  1. State the basic method of preparing cakes.
  2. State four types of cakes and the method for preparing each.


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