Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Senior Secondary School 2

Pasture and forage crops

Class: S.S.S 2

Term: 2nd Term

Date: 9th- 13th of January 2023

Week: 1

Subject: Agricultural Science

Topic: Pasture and forage crops

Duration:45 minutes

Teaching Aid: A chart

Reference Books: 1. Essential Agricultural Science for Senior Secondary Schools by O.A Iwena(page 179-183)

  1. Comprehensive Certificate Agricultural Science For Senior Secondary Schools by L.A Are et al (page 305-308)

Behavioural Objectives: By the end of this topic, students should be able to

  1. Define pasture and forage crops
  2. Mention some common grasses and legumes of livestock with their botanical names


Step 1: Teacher welcomes students back to school

Step 2: Teacher introduces and explains new topic

Step 3: Teacher dictates note

Step 4: Teacher evaluates students

Step 5: Teacher marks students' notes and give assignment

Previous knowledge: Students have been taught husbandry of selected crops




Pasture refers to an area of land covered with forage crops which are usually grasses and legumes that are grazed or fed on by livestock such as cattle, sheep and goats. Forage crops on the other hand are plants cultivated for their vegetative portions and used in fresh or preserved forms of feeding livestock.

Uses of Forage Crops

Forage crops have the following uses:

  1. Livestock Feed: Forage crops are usually used for feeding livestock like cattle, sheep and goat. Hay, straw and sillage are prepared from forage crops
  2. As Cover Crops: Most forage crops, especially leguminous plants, serve as cover crops which add nutrients to soils and control weed growth.
  • Conservation of Soil Moisture: most forage crops, especially leguminous plants, help to conserve soil moisture by preventing evaporation.
  1. Prevention of Erosion: some forage crops, especially leguminous plants, help to prevent water and wind erosion
  2. As green Manure: Fore crops, especially when they are young could be ploughed into the soil as green manure
  3. For roofing Farmsteads: Some forage crops like guinea grass and elephant grass are usually used for roofing farmsteads as a result of their strong stems and plenty leaves.
  • As Bedding Materials: Most forage crops serve as bedding materials for animals.

Types of Pasture

There are two main types of pastures. These are:

  1. Natural Pasture: Natural pasture is also referred to as natural grassland or rangeland. In this pasture, grasses and legumes grow naturally on their own and are feed upon by farm animals, i.e., grasses are not planted by farmers. Examples of natural grassland are the savanna areas of Nigeria.

Characteristics of Natural Pasture

  1. Natural pastures of grassland contains poor quality grasses and legumes
  2. It contains soil types that are low in fertility
  • It contains wide varieties of grasses and legumes, some of which may not eaten by livestock
  1. It has good regenerative ability
  2. Productivity of natural pasture is very low and resistant to drought
  3. Forage crops in natural pasture can withstand trampling by farm animals.
  • Natural pasture may contain some grasses which cannot be easily eradicated
  • New growth is stimulated by burning
  1. Artificial Pasture: This is also referred to as established or sown pasture. In this pasture, grasses and legumes are deliberately planted and managed by man to be fed on by livestock.

Characteristics of Artificial Pasture

  1. It contains high quality grasses and legumes
  2. It contains no weeds except some shade trees
  • Selected grasses and legumes are grown in adequate proportion
  1. It has high regenerative ability after being fed on by animals
  2. It can withstand trampling by farm animals
  3. It is properly managed for high productivity of the forage crops e.g. fertilization, irrigation and rotational grazing.



Common Name�������������������� Botanical Name

(1) Elephant grass����������������� Pennisetum purpureum

(2) Guinea grass�������������������� Panicum maximum

(3) Giant Star grass��������������� Cynodon plectostachyum

(4) Carpet grass�������������������� Axonopus compressus

(5) Spear grass���������������������� Imperrata cylindrical

(6) Bahama grass������������������� Cynodon dactylon

(7) Northern gamba��������������� Andropogon gayanus

(8) Sourthern gamba�������������� Andropogon tectorum


Common Name������������������ Botanical Name

(1) Centro���������������������������� Centrosema Pubescens

(2) Stylo������������������������������ Stylosanthes gracilis

(3) Kudzu or puero������������� Pueraria phaseoloides

(4) Calopo��������������������������� Calopoganium mucunoides

(5) Muccuna������������������������ Muccuna utilis

(6) Sun hemp����������������������� Crotalaria juncea


Factors affecting the distribution of pasture can be grouped into three classes:

  1. Climatic Factor: The type of climate in an area influences the type of vegetation in that particular area. For example, Sudan types of climate favours the growth of grasses and legumes while Equatorial climate does not. Elements of climate which can directly influence temperature, relative humidity, day length, sunlight, etc.
  2. Soil or Edaphics Factors: This refers to the level of fertility of the soil. Fertile soil tends to support pasture growth while poor soil does not. Soil factors which may influence the distribution of pasture are soil pH, soil texture, soil structure as well as the slope of the land (topography).
  3. Biotic Factors: Biotic factors like disease, pests, parasites, predators generally influence the distribution of pasture. The activities of man such as bush burning and over-grazing generally have adverse effects on the distribution of pasture


These factors include:

  1. Persistence: This is the ability of the pasture crops to survive and spread by vegetative means.
  2. Aggressiveness: This is the ability of pasture to compete favourably with other weeds. High aggressiveness ensures continous availability of the pasture crops.
  3. Resistance to Trampling: This refers to the ability of pasture to resist continuous trampling by farm animals during grazing and still remains available to livestock to feed on.
  4. Seed Viability (or profuseness): Seeds of pasture should be viable over a long period of time. It should be easily propagated to ensure high pasture productivity
  5. Pests and Disease: Absence of pests and disease within a pasture ensures their increased productivity
  6. Accurate Stocking: An accurate number of animals should graze a specified area of pasture. Overgrazing does not ensure increased productivity of pasture.
  7. Good Management: Proper management practices such as regular weeding, rouging, irrigation, good grazing, fertilization, etc. should be practiced to ensure increased productivity of pasture.


Before pasture can be established, the following factors should be considered:

  1. Adaptation of Species: Legumes and grasses should be adapted to the local environment
  2. Palatability: Legumes and grasses to be established must be palatable and nutritious for animals.
  3. Compatibility: The grass-legume mixture in the pasture must be compatible to each other
  4. Time of Maturity: grasses and legumes to be established should be able to mature within the shortest possible time
  5. Life Cycle of the Species: Annuals with annual plants or perennials with perennials plant should be mixed together when establishing pasture. This is to ensure continous availability of pasture

The establishment of pasture takes the following sequence:

  1. Site Selection: Select a suitable site which should be well-drained with good loamy soil.
  2. Clearing of Land: The land should be cleared or cut back the site with hoes and cutlasses.
  • Removal of Debris: Debris on the site should be removed or it could be gathered and burnt.
  1. Cultivation of Site: The land, field or site should be cultivated by way of ploughing, harrowing and if possible ridging
  2. Planting of pasture crops: Planting of the desired pasture, grass or legume is carried out.
  3. Supplying: Plant materials that fail to germinate should be supplied with new planting materials
  • Planting of Legumes: Leguminous plants should be planted, especially in the case of grass and legume mixture
  • Promotion of Tillering: The grasses should be cut back at regular intervals to promote tillering.
  1. Weeding: Weeding should be done at regular intervals, especially at the early stages of the pasture
  2. Fertilizer application: Apply fertilizers at the appropriate rate by broadcasting
  3. Irrigation: Light irrigation or watering of the planted seeds or solons should be done, especially in arid areas with low rainfall.
  • Paddocking: The pasture should be broken into convenient units for good grazing management like rotational grazing


Some common management practices in pasture to ensure continous supply of grasses and legumes to livestock include the following:

  1. Burning: Burning should be done once in a year, especially when the forage crops are over-regrowth of the grasses and legumes
  2. Fencing: This is the partitioning of the pasture into sections called paddocks to facilitate rotational grazing
  3. Application of fertilizer: Application of fertilizer in the pasture ensures rapid and succulent growth of pasture because of increase in the fertility of the soil
  4. Weed control: Weeds should be removed regularly from the pasture to prevent competition with forage plants for nutrients and space
  5. Pests and Diseases control: These should be prevented to ensure rapid growth of pasture crops
  6. Irrigation: Pasture farm should be irrigated, especially during the dry season to ensure the availability of fresh and succulent grasses all the year round.
  7. Adequate stocking: The correct number of animals should be placed on a pasture to graze. Overgrazing should be prevented.

Evaluation: differentiate between natural and artificial pasture

Assignment: discuss the characteristics of any grass and legume

� Lesson Notes All Rights Reserved 2023