Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Senior Secondary School 2

Structure: Plural Forms of Nouns





  • Montgomery et al: Effective English for SS 2 ( Main Text) Evans Publishers, Ibadan
  • Ogunsanya et al: Countdown to SSCE, Evans Publisher, Ibadan.
  • Onuigbo S.M: Oral English for Schools and Colleges, Africana Publishers, Enugu.
  • Ayo Banjo et al: New Oxford Secondary English Course SS 2. University Press PLC, Ibadan
  • FoluAgoi: Towards Effective Use of English. A grammar of Modern English
  • Ayo Akano: Maclimillan Mastery English Language for Senior Secondary Schools, Macmillan Nigeria Publishrs limited, Ibadan
  • Ken Mebele et al: Goodbye to Failure in English for Senior Schools, Book 2, Treasure Publishers LTD, Lagos.
  • Benson O. A Oluikpe et al: Intensive English for Senior Secondary Schools, 2 Africanal Publishers LTD, Onitsha.
  • Oxford, Advanced Learners Dictionary.
  • WAEC Past Questions.






  • Topic Structure: Plural Forms of Nouns.


Content: Notes.

English nouns derive their plural forms in a variety of ways. The various methods of signifying plurality is the subject of this section.


  • Addition of –s


Many nouns in English are generally denoted by the addition of the pluralizing morpheme –s


    table – tables

    stones – stones

    key – keys

    book – books

    sister – sisters.

    shirt – shirts



  • Addition of –es


The plural form of some nouns ending in –s, -x, -sh, -ch, -o is derived by adding –es


    potato – potatoes.

    bonus – bonuses.

    mango – mangoes.

    box – boxes

    churches – churches.

    bus – buses.

    dish – dishes


Some nouns ending in –o derive their plural forms in the normal way (i.e adding –s)

piano – pianos

zoo – zoos

Kangaroo – Kangaroos



  • Addition of –en/-ren


Child – children

Ox – oxen



  • Some nouns ending in –f.-fe either take an ‘s’ or change ‘f’ to ‘-ves’


belief – beliefs

chief – chiefs

cliff – cliffs

calf – calves

thief – thieves

leaf – leaves

wife – wives

knife – knives

life – lives

Some of these words however have double plural

    dwarf – dwarfs / dwarves

    scarfs – scarfs / scarves.

    hoof – hoofs / hooves

    wharf – wharfs / wharves.



  • Certain nouns ending in ‘y’ preceded by a consonant form their plurals by changing the ‘y’ to ‘ies’


city – cities

baby – babies

lorry – lorries

lady – ladies

country – countries

              Nouns which end in ‘y, preceded by a vowel form their plurals by taking ‘s’

            tray – trays.

            donkey – donkeys

            monkeys – monkeys

            toy – toys.


  • Some nouns have their vowels changed in the plural forms


foot – feet

man – men

goose – geese

mouse – mice

tooth – teeth.



  • In some nouns, ‘is’ change to ‘es’


axis – axes.

crisis – crises

hypothesis – hypotheses.



  • Some species unchanged in the plural


deer – deer

cattle – cattle

sheep – sheep

swine – swine

furniture – furniture

information – information

baggage – baggage

luggage – luggage

damage – damage

knowledge – knowledge

advice – advice



  • Some nouns that end with ‘s’ are always treated as singular











Other changes in singular – plural forms are:

            datum – data

            criterion – criteria

            medium – media

            formula – formulae



Choose the appropriate word or group of words of the two options provided.

  1. I have (a saving/ savings) account.
  2. Linguistics (is/are) not the learning of many languages.
  3. The surroundings of the uncompleted building (is/are) always kept clean.
  4. Measles (is/are) highly contagious.
  5. I met some (Chinese/ Chineses) in Lagos yesterday.



Effective English, page 187



  • Topic – SpeechWork – Stress of Five Syllable Words.


Recall that a stressed syllable is usually pronounced longer and louder than unstressed syllable

Words of five syllables that end in –ion, have the second syllable from the end stressed



            co – opeRAtion




Stress the third syllable from the end if a word ends in –ity




Stress the third syllable from the back in the word that ends in –al,




Words that end in –ism, -ive, -ible/-able have the stress placed on the fourth syllable from the back








Stress the following words

durability, electricity, distributional, temperamental


Countdown in English Language, pages 297 – 300



  • Topic – Writing: Creative Writing; Features of a Short Story.


Creative writing refers to literary work produced for readership. It involves skillful and imaginative production of something original which could take the form of a short story, poetry or drama.


Short Story Writing

A short story is a narration created from the writer’s imagination or factual knowledge of events that happened. It comes under the umbrella of narrative essays as the features are the same. The features of a short story are as follows.



  1. Theme: A short story must have a central point (theme) from which a story is developed.
  2. Plot: It must have a story line. This means the order the story follows to develop the theme.
  3. Characters: The story must show who and who took part in the actions/events of the story. The story comes to life more when names are given to the characters and show interaction among them through using dialogue.
  4. Setting: The story must tell the readers where the events/actions and when interaction took place.
  5. It must have a beginning, a climax an anti-climax and a conclusion. A good writer can begin or start a story from any order.

Example: Read through these three beginnings of a short story.

  1. From the beginning

On 16th April 2002, I set out with my sister Obiageli for our grandma’s at Bodija in Ibadan about five kilometres away from our house in the University of Ibadan.

  1. From the climax

‘Watch out!’ I shouted. The driver swerved but it was too late. A trailer overtaking at the top speed had brushed the bus conveying us to grandma’s. the rest was sad to tell as I lay…….

  1. From the conclusion

Can I ever walk again? Is my dream of entering university this session over? Had I listened to the voice of wisdom?

These were my words of regret as I remembered the 16th of April, 2002 when I set out with my sister, Obiageli for …….

  1. Language
  1. The tense of the narration must be past, but when dialogue is brought in, the tense can be present.
  2. Use of dialogue, humour, anecdotes, and rhetorical question will certainly bring the characters to life and enrich the story.
  3. The narration can be in the first person (I, we) or third person ( he, she, they)
  4. Use imaginary that appeals to the senses in descriptive portions of your story.

Example: the car screeched to a halt and three hefty fierce – looking menjumped out of it. I held my breath and tip – toed to the back of the house.


Study the features of a short story, then write a complete story using any of the three approaches given above. Your story should not be more than 450 words.



Countdown in English, page 39



  • Topic: Summary Writing; Agriculture technical aid corps proposed to Africa.


A summit to tackle the problems of food security in Africa was organized with delegates from different African countries. NEPAD adviser, Professor Richard Mkandawire in his address hoped for a situation when African countries would establish some form of technical assistance programmes within the African countries.



Read and answer the summary questions.



Effective English page 84 – 85



Choose the correct option in each of the following sentences.

  1. The woman, togetherwith her son, always attend/attends our church.
  2. Neither Emeka nor his friends was/ were at the party
  3. The committee was busy discussing the problem facing it/them.


Complete the spelling of the following words by filling the blank spaces with correct letters

dec __ve, dro__ing (drop), pro__essor, __nopsis, dia__oea, cata__h, __monia




From the items numbered 1 – 5, choose the word that rhyme with the word against each number.

  1. Sponge     A. blunt     B. bunk     C. plunge     D. front
  2. Clutch     A. clause     B. scourge     C. touch     D. merge
  3. Crux     A. flux        B. dispute     C. fox         D. execute
  4. Bulk     A. pulp    B. gulp     C. sulk     D. exult
  5. Aid    A.grade    B. flake     C. snake     D. opaque.



Do practice 3, page 51

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