Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Senior Secondary School 2









The accrual concept states that revenue and expenditure of a period should be matched together – whether or not such revenue or expenditure had actually been received or paid for.


This means that items of expenditure or income shown in the final account should be for sums actually related to the period covered by the financial statements prepared in the final account.  Therefore statements such as the Trading and Profit and Loss Account should be prepared on the accruals, or matching basis so that expenses are matched to the revenue earned: that is, expenses are shown in the Profit and Loss Account as they have been incurred rather than as they have been paid. Similarly, incomes are shown in the Profit and Loss Account as they have been earned rather than as they have been received.


Accrual can be divided into 

(a)    Accrued expenses

(b)    Accrued income (i.e income received in arrears)


ACCRUED EXPENSES: These are expenses which accrued but have not been paid for or 

discharged.  They are also referred to as expenses owing or creditors for expenses e.g. 

Accrued electricity.



Supposing rent for 9 months (says N18,000) had actually been paid, that of the remaining 3 

months (say N6,000) not yet paid must also be charged to Profit and Loss Account making the 

total rent N24,000 (i.e. N18,000 + N6,000) for the 12 months accounting period for which the 

Profit and Loss Account is prepared.


The Rent Account will appear as follows:



                N                                                                                  N

July 2        Cash        18,000        Dec. 31    Profit and Loss    24,000

Dec. 31   Accrued Rent c/d      6,000

                24,000                            24,000

                        Jan. 1        Accrued Rent b/d      6,000


The credit balance of N6,000 on the Rent Account is an accrued expenses and is shown as a current liability in the Balance Sheet as at 31st December …….


ACCRUED INCOME: These are incomes which are due in respect of the current trading period but such income have not been received at the close of final account preparation.  It is also refered to as income receivable e.g. interest receivable, rent receivable, commission receivable.



In the year ended 31st December, 2005,Modupe had received interest of N4000 on her fixed 

deposit account with First Bank Nig. Plc.  At that date, interest for the half year to 31st

December, 2005 was due from the bank.  The entries in the Interest Receivable account of 

Modupe at 31st December, 2005 are as follows:

Interest Receivable


2005                N        2005                    N

Dec. 31   Profit and Loss    8,000        Sept. 15    Bank            4,000

                        Dec. 31    Interest accrued c/d    4,000

                8,000                            8,000


Jan 1     Balance b/d        4,000


The balance of N4,000 on the Interest Receivable Account is shown as a current asset in the 

Balance Sheet as at 31st December, 2005.



  1. List six uses of the General Journal.
  2. State two similarities and two differences between the Trading Account and the Profit and Loss Account.



Prepayments are payments made in advance of the benefits to be derived from them.  It 

represents amount paid in current period for services to be received in a subsequent period.

Prepayment can be divided into

(a)     Prepaid expenses

(b)    Income received in advance


PREPAID EXPENSES: These are expenses like rent, insurance etc. which are paid in advance for subsequent period.  Only the expenses for the period must be charged to the Profit and Loss Account.  Therefore expenses paid in advance are deducted from total payments in line with the requirements of the matching concept.



Supposing N15,000 is paid for electricity and it is for 15 months, the amount to be charged to the Profit and Loss Account at the end of the year is not N15,000 but N12,000

i.e.   N15,000  x   12  months


while the N3,000 balance is regarded as prepayment or payment in advance.


The Electricity (or Lighting and Heating)Account will appear as follows:




20x5                N        20x5                    N

Jan. 23        Cash        15,000        Dec. 31     Profit and Loss              12,000

                        “       “        Prepaid Electricity c/d3,000

                15,000                            15,000


Jan. 1      Prepaid Elect. b/d    3,000


The debit balance of N3,000 on the Electricity Account is a prepaid expense and is shown as a current asset in the Balance Sheet as at 31st December, 20x5.


INCOME RECEIVED IN ADVANCE: These are income received by the organization duringthe current period but which relate to the next (or subsequent) trading period e.g. rent received in advance.


Illustration:In the year ended 31st December, 2007, Elizabeth had received N30,000 for rent from a tenant.  At that date rent for the half year has been prepaid by the tenant.  Show the Rent Receivable Account in the books of Elizabeth.


Rent Receivable


2007                N        2007            N

Dec. 31    Profit and Loss    20,000        Jul. 8      Bank        30,000

Dec. 31    Balance c/d        10,000

                30,000                    30,000


                        Jan 1. Balance b/d    10,000


The credit balance of N10,000 on the Rent Receivable Account is an income received in advance and is shown as a current liability in the Balance Sheet of Elizabeth as at 31st December, 2007.



  1. Why is it necessary to make adjustments in the final accounts for accruals and prepayments?
  2. How will you account for the following when preparing the final accounts.

    (i)    Accrued Expenses

    (ii)    Prepayments

    (iii)    Rent Receivable Outstanding

  1. What accounting concepts underly your treatment of these items.



  1. Explain the following : (a) bank loan (b) bank overdraft (c) standing order (d) credittransfer
  2. List five source documents used in preparing the Cash Book.
  3. List four accounts found in each of the following (a) nominal ledger (b) private ledger

(c) general ledger

  1. Describe three features of each of the following financial statements: (a) Trading Account (b) Profit and Loss Account (c) Balance Sheet
  2. State seven reasons for preparing a bank reconciliation statement.


Simplified and Amplified Financial Accounting, Page 185-202



  1. Prepayment is treated in the balance sheet of a firm as a ________

    (a) fixed asset        (b) long-term liability        (c) current asset     (d) current liability

  1. Rent prepaid as at 1st January, 2002 was N10,000.  Annual rent payable is N80,000 and rent accrued as at 31st December, 2002 was N15,000.  How much was paid for rent in 2002 

    (a) N80,000      (b)  N75,000          (c) N55,000    (d) N35,000

  1. Resources consumed but to be paid for within the next accounting period are classified in the balance sheet as ________

    (a) current liabilities      (b)  current assets      (c) long-term liabilities     (d)  capital

Use the following information to answer questions 4 and 5

Rent receivable accrued   1/01/2005        D3,000

Rent received during the year 2005        D5,000

Rent receivable accrued 31/12/2005        D2,500

  1. The entry for rent received in the profit and loss account for the year ended 31st December, 2005 is __________

    (a) Credit profit and loss account with D4,500    (b) Credit profit and loss account with D2,500   (c) debit profit and loss account with  D2,500     (d) debit profit and loss account with D4,500

  1.       The balance in the rent receivable account as at 31/12/2005 is shown in the balance sheet as (a) fixed asset (b) current asset (c) current liability (d) long term liability



Write up the ledger accounts of Adesua.  Enterprises for the year ended 31st December, 2007.

(a)    Motor Expenses:

    Paid for the year to 31st December 2007  N80,000;  Owing at 1st January, 2007 N4000; Prepaid at 31st December, 2007  N5,000

(b)    Rates:

    Paid in the year to 30th June 2005 N4,500; Rates prepaid as at 30th June 2004 N1000 

    Rates owing at 30th June 2005 N2,500

© Lesson Notes All Rights Reserved 2023