SUBJECT: BASIC TECHNOLOGY
TERM: 3RD TERM
Sanitation can be defined as the equipment and system that keeps places clean, especially by removing human wastes.
The success of any sanitation programme does not depend on the provision of sanitary facilities rather upon collective responsibility through individual discipline for the good of all. Therefore, the importance of good sanitation to the health and general well-being of people cannot be over-emphasized
Poor Sanitation has been linked to the spread of diseases such as cholera, diarrhea, and typhoid e.t.c. Pathogens are disease-producing organisms e.g. mosquito, housefly and tsetse fly.
The design of a sanitary system should have the following factors in focus:
The basic objectives of any sanitary system are to reduce the BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) and achieve the reduction and control of pathogens. Biochemical Oxygen Demand is a measure of organic pollution. It is usually expressed milligrams/litres of solution
Non-Network Disposal System
The common latrines, the aqua privy system, the septic tank system are referred to as the non-network systems.
The different types of latrine are the bucket latrine, pit latrine and incineration latrine.
The success of the bucket latrine depends critically on organization.
The bucket latrine is an example of what is called a removal method. It involves storing human waste in containers from where night-soil men evacuate them. The bucket consists of four main elements, namely:
The evacuated waste can be disposal of in any of the following ways:
Problem with bucket latrine is the need for the night-soil men to regularly and carefully remove the buckets to ensure that there is no spillage, which leaves the area very unsightly and full of odour.
The pit latrine consists of the pit, the floor slab or the squatting plate and the superstructure. It is recommended that the floor slab be constructed with concrete reinforced with steel bars. The pit latrines can be made more popular by providing vents as well as water seals.
In the construction of pit latrine the following factors should be considered at the design stage:
A pit latrine should be deep as possible to ensure long life. It will dark and thereby prevent breeding of flies and also reduce odour. It is supported particularly in areas where the soil is weak or where the ground water is likely to rise above the bottom of the pit latrine. In such cases, pit latrines should be lined.1:3:6 concrete mix is recommended for the base. The concrete floor should reinforced and inter locked in between. It should also be vented, as vented latrines have been shown to be odourless and to have less number of flies, due to air circulation.
The aqua privy is a device whereby faeces are stored in a water-tight pit, floor slab, and soak away pit. It is not as expensive as the septic tank, while having many advantages over the ordinary pit latrine.
In aqua privy, excreta are deposited directly into a tank rather being flushed along a pipe network as in the case of a septic tank system. For septic tank system, digestion of excreta by anaerobic bacteria takes place in the tank. Faeces enter the tank from the above the squatting plate through a vertical drop pipe, with an optimum diameter of 15cm, whose tip should be at least 10cm deep in the water.
Advantages over pit latrine
Advantages over septic tank
The water level in the tank must be maintained by topping it up daily with about 14 litres of water. This quantity of water can be used initially to wash the floor and wall of the inlet drop pipe into the tank every morning.
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