Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Junior Secondary School 3

Emphatic Stress








Topic:     Emphatic Stress



Empathic Stress is also known as contrastive stress. It is the stressing of a particular word more than the other words in a sentence. Such a stress normally has its implications in terms of the meaning of the sentence.

Consider the sentence below and notice how its meaning changes according to the word that has been stressed.

  1. JAMES borrowed the novel (i.e., James, not anybody else borrowed the novel)
  2. James BORROWED the novel. (i.e., James didn’t, for example, steal or buy the novel; he borrowed it)
  3. James borrowed THE novel (i.e., James borrowed a particular novel well known to the discussants.)
  4. James borrowed the NOVEL (i.e., James borrowed the novel, not the magazines, not the journal etc.)

Evaluation:    Now answer the following questions:

  1. The man takes COFFEE every Sunday morning.
  2. Does the man take coffee every Monday morning?
  3. Does the man take coffee every Sunday morning?
  4. Does the man take tea every Sunday morning?
  5. Students must study HARD to pass their examinations.
  6. Who must study hard to pass their examinations?
  7. Why must students study hard?
  8. How must students study to pass their examinations?
  9. Many students are weak in ORAL English.
  10. Are many students weak in written English?
  11. Are many students strong in Oral English?
  12. Who are weak in Oral English?
  13. Adamu OPENLY disagreed with his principal. 
  14. Did Adamu openly disagree with his friend?
  15. Did Adamu secretly disagree with his principal?
  16. Who openly disagreed with his principal?
  17. Honesty is ALWAYS the best policy.
  18. Is honesty always the best policy?
  19. Is honesty seldom the best policy?
  20. Is dishonesty always the best policy?

Reading Assignment: Read Exam Focus for more information.

Reference: Ogunsanwo’s Countdown English Language.


Topic: Literature:  Review of Literary Terms ( major/minor characters, theme, plot, tragic and comic elements, etc.)



Characterization: This refers to the way the author presents his characters in terms of  qualities peculiar to them. This may be through narration, description, dialogues, speeches etc. We could have major and minor characters in a play. 


Major character: A character that features prominently or throughout a play or prose e.g. Joseph in “Village Boy” Agbalowomeri and Justice Faderin are also major characters in “The Incorruptible Judge”


Minor character: A character that features once a while or less prominently in a work of friction.  

Theme:    This refers to the central or main idea that is discussed in a work of friction. It is the major message in the work. The themes of hard work, courage and humility are discussed in the “Village Boy”; the theme of corruption in “The Incorruptible judge”

Plot:    This is the organization of events in a literary work. The organization is done following the principle of cause and effect. A plot could either be linear or complex.


Setting:    This refers to the totality of the environment of a story. It refers to the period, place, situation, atmosphere, etc, of a story.


Comic Relief:    This is a comic element inserted in a tragic work to relieve tension.


Flashback:    This is a scene in a play, film or novel that shows an event which had happened earlier.


Evaluation:    In your own words, discuss the following:

  1. Major character 
  2. Theme
  3. Plot
  4. Comic relief
  5. Flashback


Reading Assignment: Read “Element of Literature” on page 156-157 of Exam Focus.

Reference: Exam focus: English for JSCE


Topic:    Review of Literary Terms for Poetry 


    Literary terms for poetry include:

  1. Simile: This is the description of a thing by comparing it to another thing that is similar to it using “Like’ and “As” E.g.;

    She is as beautiful as a peacock.

    You are like a tortoise.

    He is as proud as a peacock.

    The righteous is as bold as a lion

  1. Metaphor: Here, one thing is equated to another that shares the same quality with it,               e.g.
  2. She is a fox.
  3. Jude is a lion.
  4. You have caught a big fish today.

Personification: This is realized when human quality (ies) is/are given to inanimate objects; e.g. 

                          My car is coughing. 

                          The sun is smiling at me.

                          The trees are clapping.

Hyperbole:    This is another word for over statement or exaggeration, e.g.

        Tola finished that mountain of pounded yam!

        There is no water every where.

Euphemism:    This refers to the presentation of an unpleasant thing in a pleasant way.

        The king has joined his ancestors.

        I want to visit the ladies. 

Alliteration:    Repetition of the same consonant sounds in a sequence, e.g.

        Felix fried fish for father Fred 

        Orunmila makes my medicine potent. 


Assonance:    Occurrence of the same vowel sound in words that follow one another, e.g.

        The boy wet the bed. 

        Make hay while you may.

Metonymy:    The use of one thing to stand for another thing with which it has a direct relationship, e.g. 

    “Crown” is used for a king 

      “All hands’’ must be on deck. 

                  “hands’’ represents human beings.

            Many lives were lost during the crisis. 

Oxymoron:    Using two words of opposite meanings

                                    Parting is a sweet sorrow

            You are as a wise fool 

            Death is a cruel kindness


Synecdoche:    The use of a part of a thing to represent the whole, e.g.


                      “Pen” is used for a journalist

              “Sword is used for a soldier”


Evaluation:    With one example for each, discuss the following terms in your own words:

  1. Oxymoron
  2. alliteration
  3. simile
  4. metaphor
  5. personification
  6. metonymy

Reading Assignment: Read page 157-158 of Exam Focus: English for JSCE

Reference: Exam Focus: English for JSCE

© Lesson Notes All Rights Reserved 2023