SUBJECT: HOME ECONOMICS
TERM: 3RD TERM
Home Economics for JSS 1 – 3 by Elizabeth U. Anyakoha pg 341-358.
PREGNANCY AND CHILD BIRTH
Pregnancy is the result of the fertilization of the female ovum or egg by the male sperm or cells .It is necessary that you understand some of the male and female reproductive organs.
MALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS
- Two testes enclosed by the scrotum.
- Sperm cells is the male sex cells, sperms are produced in the testes.
- The sperm ducts also known as vas deference are tubes that carry sperms from the testes to the seminal vesicles.
- Seminal vesicles are where the sperms are stored until they are ejaculated.
- Prostrate glands secretes a liquid in which the sperm cells are suspended.
- Urethra is the ducts through which sperms flow to the outside. It is embedded in the penis.
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
- Two ovaries each produces one egg every month.
- Ovum or egg is the female sex cells.
- Oviducts or fallopian tubes each leading from each ovary to the uterus.
- Uterus or womb is the place where the baby develops.
- Vagina is connected to the uterus and leads to the vulva.
HOW PREGNANCY OCCURS
Each of the ovary produces ovum every month, the process of producing ovum is called ovulation. If there is a sexual relationship or intercourse between a man and a woman at this period when the ovum is produced the sperm will fertilize the ovum. The result is pregnancy. If there is no sexual relationship, the released ovum will die off in a day or two, then menstruation will occur.
SIGNS OF PREGNANCY
- menstruation stops.
- Breast becomes tender, fuller, nipples becomes darker.
- Nausea and vomiting especially in the morning.
- There may be frequent urination.
- The abdomen enlarges from about 3 months.
- As the pregnancy advances, the mother feels the baby’s movements.
Ante-natal care is the care required by a pregnant woman before birth of her child.
Ante-natal care include the following;
- Regular visit to ante-natal clinic includes urine test, blood test, blood pressure, weight check, abdominal examination.
- Good nutrition.
- Proper clothing
- Good personal hygiene.
- Avoidance of strenuous work.
- Avoidance of drug abuse
- Avoidance of smoking and alcohol.
- Regular mild exercise and enough rest.
POSSIBLE EFFECTS OF POOR NUTRITION DURING PREGNANCY
- Low birth weight.
- Different forms of malformation in the child.
- Mother’s health might be affected too.
PREPARATION FOR CHILD BIRTH
- it is very important that a pregnant or expectant mother prepares for the delivery well in advance. The following are important things required;-
- a) Sanitary pads
- b) Personal clothing e.g. night gown, nursing brassiers, pants.
- c) Toiletries-soap, cream, powder e.t.c.
- d) Bed linen
For the baby
- a) Clothes for baby
- b) Pampers/nappies
- c) Towels
- d) Toiletries-baby soaps, lotion, oil, powder e.t.c.
- e) Baby comb.
Is the care required by a mother after child birth.
Is a complete set of clothes required by a new born baby.
USES OF BABY’S LAYETTS
- to protect the baby
- to keep baby warm.
- to make baby comfortable
- One of the following is not an anti-natal test a) complexion test b) blood test c) urine test
2. The care required by a pregnant woman before child birth is_________care. a) post natal b) birth rate c) ante-natal
3. _______ occurs when the ovum is fertilized. a) Menstruation (b) pregnancy (c) ovulation
4. A female sex cell is called___________ a) sperm b)ovum c)ovary
5 The male sex cells is called a) testis b)ovum c)ova
- Define baby’s layette
- State 4 uses of baby’s layette. What is ante natal care?
- List 5 signs of pregnancy
- Differenciate ovulation from menstruation