Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Junior Secondary School 3

Review of Verbs and Adverbs








Topic: Review of Verbs and Adverbs


A verb is an action word. It tells us what the subject of a sentence does. There are two types of verbs: transitive and intransitive verbs.

Transitive Verbs

These are verbs that have / take objects.



One man does the work. 


I broke my leg.


She slapped the boy. 


The tailor made a beautiful dress.


Intransitive Verbs


These are verbs that don’t take / have objects


A cock crows.


I slept very well yesterday.


The baby cries everyday.   

However, some verbs can be used either as transitive verbs (that is, with objects) and as intransitive verbs (that is, without objects) e.g;


  1. He ate rice (rice is the object)
  2. He ate (no object)


  1. I can fight him (Him is the object)
  2. I can fight (no object)


  1. Bimpe sings a song everyday (song is the object)

ii    Bimpe sings everyday (no object)


Verb Tenses

Tenses show the time actions take place in sentences. As the subject of a sentence does, the time an action takes place determines the form of the verb in a sentence.

Note how the verb in each of the following sentences changes its form according to the time the action takes place.

Present Progressive TensePresent TensePast TensePresent Perfect
I am playingI playI playedI have played
You are workingYou workYou workedYou have worked
He is writingHe writesHe wroteHe has written
She is doing itShe does itShe did itShe has done it
We are going thereWe go thereWe went thereWe have gone there
They are dancingThey danceThey dancedThey have danced


However, some verbs don’t change their forms in the present, the past and the perfect tenses, eg.

Present TensePast TensePerfect Tense



Evaluation:    List five verbs, use them in sentences and state whether the verbs are transitive or intransitive. 

Change to simple present:

  1. Tolu bought a book
  2. We ate beans last night 
  3. The children did the work
  4. I have learnt driving
  5. You are beating your brother



An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb in the same sentence.

Examples of adverbs are: quickly, slowly, loudly, boldly, beautifully, secretly, today, tonight, tomorrow, how, very, too, so, etc.

Types of Adverbs

  1. Adverb of Manner
  2. He ran quickly
  3. She walked slowly
  4. Adverb of Time
  5. I saw him yesterday.
  6. He will arrive soon

Do it now 

iii.    Adverb of Place

  1. I saw him there.

              b.They are playing outside.

  1. Interrogative Adverb
  2. Where is my book?
  3. When will you come to my house?

v    Appropriate adverb for expressing frequency of actions and events.

    (a)  Always, (b) frequently (c) often normally, scarcely, barely etc

  1. Adverbs that are intensifier are: very, too, so.

 vii.    Adverbial Phrases

  1. He is a little taller than I.
  2. She visits me every Sunday.
  3. He went there on Saturday. 


Common adverbs that express negation include: nothing,  nowhere, hardly, rarely, seldom, never, etc.


Evaluation:  Point out adverbs and adverbial phrases in the following passage:

I was tired yesterday. My sleep was so deep that I did not wake up until 7.am. Then I quickly got out of bed so that people would not know when I woke up.


Reading Assignment: Read chapter 7 of English Grammar. 

Reference: English Grammar for Junior Secondary School by P.O. Olatunbosun


Topic:    Descriptive Essay (Review)


    The teacher reminds the students that:

  1. A descriptive essay is one that requires you to write a description of, for example, an object, a person, an animal, a process etc.
  2. The dominant tense used in the descriptive essay is present simple tense
  3. Great imagination is required in this kind of essay
  4. The descriptive should be presented in a logical order.
  5. The descriptive should be made very clear, interesting and informative.

Evaluation:    Write an essay of about 250 words on “The person I admire most”

Reading Assignment: Read more on Descriptive Essay from Exam Focus. 

Reference:    Countdown English Language by Ogunsanwo ; Exam Focus for JSSCE


Topic:        Review of Diphthongs


    The teacher reminds the students that:

  1. A diphthong is the combination of two vowel sounds produced together with the gliding movement of the speech organs. That is, to realize its sound, you glide from the first sound to the second one. There are eight diphthongs in English Language.


They are:

 / eɪ /        as in cake, paid, day, great, eight, rain, reign

/ əʊ /         as in go, toe, grow, sew, brooch

/ aɪ /        as in height, eye, bike, tie, sky, bye, guy

/ aʊ /         as in doubt, Hausa, crown, cow

/ ɔɪ  /        as in boil, boy, buoy, toy

/ ɪə  /        as in pear, fear, mere, sheer, fierce

/ eə  /        as in air, care, fair, hair

/ ʊə /        as in poor, pure, sure, hour

Evaluation:    Indicate the diphthongs represented by the underlined letters in the words below:

  1. crowd  /   /                        7. clear     /  /
  2. fair     /   /                         8.show   /  /
  3. serious     /   /                          9.coin   /  /
  4. Island     /   /                          10. shake  /  /
  5. foe     /   /
  6. vein     /   /

Reading Assignment: Read more on Diphthongs from Exam Focus for JSSCE.

References:    Oral English by Sam Onuigbo; Diction in English year 10


Topic:        Direct and Indirect Speech

Content: Direct speech refers to the quoting by a speaker or writer, of the actual utterance of another speaker or writer. It contains all the actual words used by the original speaker.

Things to note about direct speech are:

  1. After the subject (speaker) and the verb, put a comma.
  2. Put quotation marks before you start writing the first words of his speech
  3. Write in capital the first letter of the first words of his speech
  4. Put the appropriate punctuation mark at the end of the speech. e.g, a full stop, a question mark, or an exclamation mark.
  5. Finally, close the speech with a quotation mark.

Rules Governing Indirect Speech

  1. After mentioning the speaker (subject) and the verb, the reported speech is introduced with conjunction ‘that; where appropriate 
  2. All the verbs in the present tense in a quotation must be changed to past tense, e.g, says to said; has to had; is to was; can to could; may to might; shall to should; will to would; but the verb must not be changed if it expresses a permanent truth or customary fact. E.g. He said that the world is round.
  3. All pronouns must be changed to the third person, eg. I to he; me to him/her; we to they ;our to t their.
  4. All words of nearness must be changed to corresponding words of remoteness e.g. now to then, here to there; this to that; these to those; yesterday to the previous day, tomorrow to the next day, last week to the previous week and next year to the following year.

Study the examples below:  

  1. a. Direct speech: Akin said, “I can do it.”
  2.     Indirect speech: Akin said that he could do it.
  3. a. Direct speech: Ladi remarked, “My team wins this year.’’
  4.     Indirect speech: Ladi remarked that his team would win that year.

iii.    a.        Direct speech: The teacher says, ‘The sun rises in the east’

  1.     Indirect speech: The teacher says that the sun rises in the east.
  2. a. Direct speech: Our Geography teacher said, ‘The earth is spherical.’
  3. Indirect speech: Our Geography teacher said that the earth is spherical.


Evaluation: Do practice exercise sixteen of English Grammar for JSCE pg 70-72

Reading Assignment: Read more on Direct and Indirect Speech from English Grammar by Olatunbosun.

Reference: Countdown English Language by Ogunsanwo

Weekend Assignment: Effective English page 236-237, question 25-44



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