Vocabulary Development: Synonyms and Antonyms
SUBJECT: ENGLISH LANGUAGE
CLASS: JSS 3
TERM: 2ND TERM
TOPIC: Vocabulary Development: Synonyms and Antonyms
Synonyms are words that have almost the same meaning. Study the following examples with the aid of a dictionary:
holy pious, religious, godly
active dynamics, energetic, fast, quick
callous unfeeling, unsympathetic
law rule, legislation, regulation, statute
educated learned, informed, literate
start begin, commence, initiate
happy glad, pleased satisfied
famous popular, well-known, eminent
own possess, have
feeble weak, faint
show reveal, exhibit
aim purpose, intention, objective, goal
dangerous risky, perilous, hazardous
Antonyms are words that are opposite in meaning or nearly opposite in meaning
quiet noisy, troublesome
start end, stop
friend foe, enemy
Some antonyms are formed by adding prefixes to the words e.g; im, in, un, il. Di, etc. each of these prefixes means ‘not’
correct in correct
conceal, clever, best, inferior, approve, feeble, able, allow, callous, invaluable
Countdown English by Ogunsanwo; English Grammar by P.O Olatunbosun.
Read page 107 (Synonyms and Antonyms) of Exam Focus and page 101of English Grammar by P.O Olatunbosun.
TOPIC: Structure: Active and Passive Voices
An active sentence is one in which the subject performs an action or does something. In this case, the sentence follows the normal order of the subject, verb and object or subject and predicate.
Bola\ kicked\ the ball.
Tunde \visits\ a doctor\ every month.
I\ ate \yam\ yesterday.
The children\ are playing\. Football.
All the sentences above are in the active voice.
A passive sentence is realized when the object takes the position of the subject, i.e when the object is mentioned first before the subject.
Often times, passive sentences are used:
When we do not know the subject or performer of the action, e.g The book was stolen yesterday.
When the subject is not that important:
The rice is then boiled for twenty-five minutes.
------ when the performer/subject is known by everybody.
The evening news is read at 6pm
Examples of passive sentences are:
A song was composed by Tayo
The students were flogged by the teacher
They will be taken home by her.
Changing Active Sentences to Passive Ones.
To do this, some changes take place:
iii. An appropriate form of auxiliary ‘BE’ is introduced before the main verb
Now change the following active sentences to passive ones:
Active sentence > They sang some songs.
Passive sentence > Some songs were sang by them.
Active sentence > Women prefer smaller cars.
Passive sentence > smaller cars are preferred by women.
Active sentence > His trap has caught a rat.
Passive sentence > A rat has been caught by his trap.
Active sentence > The teacher is flogging the students.
Passive sentence > The students are being flogged by the teacher.
Change the following to passive sentences:
iii. The boy writes two letters every week.
Change the following to active sentences
English Grammar by Olatunbosun; Exam Focus: English for JSCE
Read “Active and Passive Structures on page 51-52 of English Grammar and page 76-77 of Exam Focus
TOPIC: Grammar: Phrasal Verbs and Idioms
A phrasal verb is a group of words that consists of a verb and a particle, usually a preposition. We must understand that the meaning of a phrasal verb cannot be understood from the meanings of individual words taken in isolation. Rather, it has to be understood from the entire phrase.
Consider the following:
turndown > refuse: I turned down his offer.
give in > surrender: we refused to give in to the opponents.
put off > postpone: The meeting was put off till next week.
take to > like: Children take to whoever plays with them
take after > resemble: I take after my mother.
take in > understand: She took in everything the teacher said.
An Idiom is a group of words/ a phrase/ an expression whose meaning cannot be understood from the ordinary meanings of the words consisted in it. In other words, an Idiom is an expression that has a special meaning.
Fish in troubled waters try to get an advantage from a difficult situation
Not bat an eyelid show no surprise at all
Bite off more than one can chew. try to do what one finds difficult
Put all your eggs in one basket depend on a single plan of action or person for success
Bury the hatchet stop disagreeing with each other
Pick holes in to find the weak points
Kick the bucket die
Lion’s share the largest part
Beat about the bush avoiding the important matter
Nip the crisis in the bud prevent the crisis from developing further
Write the meaning of each of the following:
Countdown English by Ogunsanwo; Exam Focus; English Grammar by Olatunbosun
Read more about phrasal verbs and idioms on page 93-95 of English Grammar by Olatunbosun.
TOPIC: Comprehension: Aikin Mata (A play)
The play is an extract from “Aikin Mata.” It features three characters- the dance leader, Alkali and Magajiya. The play shows how women abolished war by seizing power and control over all the money (kudi) in the land.
Do practice 2 on pages 190&191
Effective English for J.S.S 3
Read page 189 of Effective English for J.S.S 3
TOPIC: Speech work: Diphthongs
A diphthong is the combination of two vowel sounds produced together with the gliding movement of the speech organs. This means, to realize a diphthong, you glide from the first sound to the second one. There are eight diphthongs in English language.
\ eÉª \ as in age, date, make, raid, crane, eight
\ ÉÊ \ as in dough, old, home, go row, crow, toe, sew
\ aÉª \ as in buy, rice, cry, tie, height, high
\ aÊ \ as in cow, bout, bough, doubt
\ ÉÉª \ as in boy, boil, moist, buoy
\ ÉªÉ \ as in fear, beer, clear, fierce
\ eÉ \ as in air, bare, fair, share
\ ÊÉ \ as in poor, pure, sure
Indicate the diphthongs represented in the words below
foe \ \
crowd \ \
vain \ \
pair \ \
Island \ \
sow \ \
noise \ \
plough \ \
rear \ \
know \ \
Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology by Fatusin; Diction in English (year 10)
Read page 145 (diphthongs) of Exam Focus and Diction in English year 9
TOPIC: Writing: Argumentative Essay
An argumentative essay is one in which a candidate presents a subject with the aim of persuading his/ her audience to agree with his/her own point of view against another one. All forms of debate are argumentative essays but not all argumentative essays are debates. We may develop an argument for the following reasons:
iii. To balance the two sides of an issue.
In a debate, your audience determines how you start. There is need for vocative i.e greeting the people that are present, e.g, The Chairman, The Judges, Time-keeper, The Audience, or Ladies and Gentlemen. But, in an argumentative essay that is not a debate, there is no need for the vocative, rather, you write the topic and present your own points in a systematic way.
The language, i.e, your choice of words, must be forceful and convincing. Questions may be asked from the audience, references (allusions) can be made to history, bible, other books etc. Lastly, make sure your final words are as conclusive as possible.
Write to support or oppose the topic “Teachers are better than farmers in a society.
Countdown English by Ogunsanwo
Read more on argumentative essay from Exam Focus, page 20
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS
has been, have been, is being, will be, will have done, will have been done.
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