Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Junior Secondary School 3

Comprehension: Explaining an Idea: Photosynthesis

SUBJECT: ENGLISH LANGUAGE                                     




TOPIC: Comprehension: Explaining an Idea: Photosynthesis


The passage explains how green plants, through a process called photosynthesis, make their food. The writer also explains certain limitations which are common to all green plants. Lastly, the writer advises people to devise methods of food production that do not depend on plants as the first link in the chain.



Do practice 2 on page 173



Effective English bk3.



Read more on the topic from Effective English bk3, page 172-173


TOPIC: Structure: Indefinite and Reciprocal Pronouns.


Indefinite Pronouns are those pronouns that don’t refer to specific people or things.


Below are examples of indefinite pronouns:

any            some             all

anybody        somebody        everybody

anyone            someone        everyone

anything        something        everything


none            few

nobody        little

no one            many

nothing        several


Note that some indefinite pronouns take singular verbs while others take plural verbs


    Everyone is present

    Nobody cares about him

    Something is missing somewhere.

    Everybody has left for the occasion 

    Few are needed for the job 

    Many want to be like her


Also, some indefinite pronouns can be used to show ownership/ possession


    That is somebody’s pencil

    Don’t steal anyone’s property

    His health is everybody’s concern


Reciprocal Pronouns: These pronouns are used when the actions of the verbs are shared by two or more people or things. Reciprocal pronouns are of two forms: “Each other” and “one another.”


    My friend and I love each other dearly.

    The players congratulated one another on their victory.


Note that “Each other” is used when two  people or things shared the action while “One another” is used when more than two people or things are involved.


List the pronouns in the following sentences, stating their types:

  1. While I was taking my bath, somebody knocked at the bathroom door which was locked.
  2. John asked himself what he was doing when a thief stole his watch.

iii.    To whom was that letter addressed?

  1. Adamu and Sule fought each other yesterday.



Countdown English by Ogunsanwo



Read more about indefinite and reciprocal pronouns from Exam Focus, page 47


TOPIC: Speech work: Vowels \ ɒ \,\ɔː\ and \ ʌ \


Vowel \ ɒ \ is described as rounded open back vowel and it is vowel no 6 in English.

Vowel \ ɔː \ is known as rounded half-open back vowel and it is vowel no 7. It is the long counterpart of vowel no 6. Vowel \ ʌ \ is described as a short neutral half-open central vowel and it is vowel no 10. Each of  these vowels is represented by different letters of the English alphabet. 


Consider the following examples:

\ ɒ \

‘au’ as in laurel, because

‘ow’ as in knowledge

‘ou’ as in cough, trough

‘a’ as in want, what

‘o’ as in cot, pot


\ ɔː \

‘a’ as in talk, water

‘oar’ as in board, roar

‘au’ as in laud, caught

‘aw’ as in law, hawk

‘ou’ as in bought, fought

‘or’ as in door, north

‘our’ as in court, bourdon

‘ar’ as in warm, war


\ ʌ \

‘o’ as in brother, mother, love

‘oe’ as in does

‘ou’ as in double, tough

‘oo’ as in flood, blood

‘u’ as in just, much, but



identify the sounds represented by the underlined letter (s) in words below.

watch        colour    daughter

sausage                         country          hot

awe        laud        money

hoard        wharf        floral



Standard speech: An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology by S.A Fatusin.



Read page 145 (vowels) of Exam Focus.


TOPIC: Writing: Descriptive Essay


A descriptive essay is an essay in which students are expected to give a vivid description of, for example, an object, a person, an animal, a process, etc.


Features of a Descriptive Essay

  • It must have a title
  • It must be written in good paragraphs
  • It must be written in simple present forms of the verbs used.
  • The use of good figures of speech is allowed.
  • The essay should be logical and clear enough to give a mental picture of what is being described to the reader.



Write an essay on the topic “My School Inter-house Sports”



Countdown English by Ognsanwo ; Exam Focus



Read page 17 of the Exam Focus: English for JSCE


TOPIC: Grammar: Direct and Indirect Speech.


A direct Speech sentence is a sentence that reports the actual utterance / statement of another speaker or writer without any alteration. A direct speech contains the exact words used by the speaker.


Features of Direct Speech

  1. After the subject (speaker) and the reporting verb, put a comma. 
  2. Put quotation marks before you write the first word of his speech.

iii.    Write in capital letter, the first letter of the first word of his speech.

  1. Put the appropriate punctuation mark at the end of the speech, e.g; a full-stop, a question mark or an exclamation mark.
  2. Close the speech with quotation marks 


Below are examples of direct speech sentences:

Akin said, ‘I am a nice boy’.

Analysis: Akin (speaker or subject)

      Said (reporting verb)  

      ( ‘) (comes after the verb)

I am a nice boy (the exact words of Akin) 

A full-stop (.) is applied because it is a complete statement.

Lastly, a quotation mark is used to close the speech.


Indirect Speech / Reported Speech

In reported speech, the exact words of the original speaker are not used. Some changes take place when giving a report using indirect speech sentence.


Features of Indirect Speech Sentences

  1. After the subject (speaker) and the reporting verb, the reported speech is introduced with conjunction “that”, where appropriate. 
  2. All the verbs in the present tense in a quotation must be changed to past tense

iii.    All pronouns must be changed to third person.

  1. All words of nearness must be changed to corresponding words of remoteness 


Below are the changes in a tabular form:

Present Tense            Past Tense

am/ is/be             was

will                would

shall                should 

have                had

has                had



I                he/ she

we                They

can                could

must                had to


Other changes

yesterday            the previous day / the day before

this week            that week

next week            the following week

here                there

now                then

today                that day

tomorrow            the following / next day

ago                before

these                those

this                that

However, when reporting a universal truth, no changes take place in the reported speech, including the reporting verb. Also, if the reporting verb is in the present or future tense, the verb in the reported speech does not change. 


Now, consider the following examples:

Direct speech: He said, ‘We have enough rooms for all of you.’

Indirect speech: The man informed us / told us that they had enough rooms for all of us.


Direct speech: Tade says, ‘We have lectures every Friday.’

Indirect speech: Tade says that they have lectures every Friday.


Direct speech: Our geography teacher said, ‘The earth is spherical’.

Indirect speech: Our geography teacher said that the earth is spherical.



Do practice exercise sixteen of English Grammar for J.S.S, page 71-72 (3 only) 



Countdown English by Ogunsanwo; English Grammar by P.O Olatunbosun



Read page 70-71 of English Grammar by P.O Olatunbosun and page 93-94 of Exam Focus.



  1. Change the following sentences from Direct to the Indirect speech. 
  1. “I am sorry, I was late,” Tolu said
  2. “I have never been here before now”
  3. “This book isn’t mine”, Kunle said.
  4. I was very ill yesterday,” John said
  1. Change these sentences to Direct speech.
  1. The tutor commanded the student to stop talking.
  2. The man asked whether I could come the next day.
  3. Mother promised to see me that day.
  4. He expressed his sympathy.


WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT: Do tests for continuous assessment on pages 155&156 OF Effective English bk3 (nos 2&3)

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