SUBJECT: HOME ECONOMICS
CLASS: JSS 3
TERM: 2nd TERM
- Home Economics New Concept Book 3 by Popoola O.O Mrs
- Home Economics for Junior Senior Schools Book 1 – 3 by Elizabeth Anyakoha Mrs
WEEK EIGHT AND NINE
TOPIC: CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND CARE
CONTENT: MEANING OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE CHILD DEVELOPMENT
NECESSARY CONDITIONS FOR CHILD DEVELOPMENT
COMMON CHILDHOOD AILMENTS
IMMUNIZATION FOR CHILDREN
MEANING OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
Growth is an increase in the physical size of the whole body or any of its part. A child grows in size, height and weight. Growth is measured in metres and kilogram.
Development is an increase in skill and complexity of function. A child is developing when he/she is making progress in what he/she does with his/her mind and body, such as holding up the head, holding a toy, gaining understanding, etc.
Principles of Child Development
- Children differ from each other, i. e. individual differences.
- The individual differences affect their developmental rates. Some may be fast and others slow.
- Development in children is predictable.
- Development follows a definite pattern.
- Development starts from the head and spreads all over the body.
- Developmental changes are orderly and progressive in a normal child.
Area of Development
- Physical Development: It is the development of the physical structure and how it functions. It refers to biological changes in size, weight, structure and strength of various parts of the body. Physical development is basic to all other aspects of development.
- Mental Development: This is development of intellectual abilities such as thinking, reasoning, remembering, understanding, state of mind, solving problems, etc.
- Social Development:This is the development of accepted behaviors in the society, development of social attitudes, acceptance of roles and obligations. Social development enables individuals to participate in and enjoy social activities and take interest in people.
- Differentiate between growth and development.
- Explain the three stages of development.
STAGES IN CHILD DEVELOPMENT
1. Head sags and needs support.
2. Hands are tightly fisted or curled.
3. Sleeps most of the time, feeds and cries.
4. Hears sounds and responds to it.
5. Stares indefinitely at surroundings.
1. Waves arms about when lying on his back.
2. Can turn head towards direction of sounds.
3. May have a regular routine, such as sleeping all night.
1. Smiles and enjoys colours and light.
2. Can hold head up slightly.
3. Can hold an object placed in his hand
4. Looks at people and follow their movements.
5. Hearing is fairly developed.
1. Holds head erect.
2. Can smile and show excitement.
3. Can reach for its toes
1. Can reach for an object.
2. Puts everything within reach into the mouth.
3. Can pull dress over face.
4. Sits with slight support.
5. Can become selective in taste.
6. Birth-weight may be doubled.
1. Recognizes constant members of the family.
2. Sits without support.
3. Hand and eyes work more together
4. May start teething.
1. Sits confidently and can crawl.
2. Uses toys freely.
3. Can transfer objects from one hand to the other.
4. May begin to associate words with people and objects.
1. Crawls very well, stands holding on to objects.
2. Gradually stands without supports.
3. Takes first steps.
4. More teeth appear.
5. Birth-weight triples.
6. Understand some words and can say a few.
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE CHILD DEVELOPMENT
- HEREDITY: This is the tendency for a parent to transfer his/her characters to his/her child. The units which bear heredity or the heredity factors in our body cells are called genes. Therefore, development of a child is directly related to the genes inherited from his/her parent(s).
- ENVIRONMENT: This includes everything that is outside the child, e.g. love and care he receives, the family, feeding, home surroundings, clothing, shelter, etc.
- List and explain the two factors influencing child development.
- State three expected development from a 6 month old child.
NECESSARY CONDITIONS FOR CHILD DEVELOPMENT
- LOVE AND CARE: A child needs love and care from every member of the family in order to grow and develop very well.
- GOOD NUTRITION: A child must be provided with good nutrition. The baby needs good food that can promote growth and development. Poor feeding in infancy can retard growth. A baby can be fed with the breast or bottle. But the breast milk is the best. As the baby grows, suitable semi-solid foods can be introduced.
Types of Feeding
- Breast Feeding (Natural Feeding)
Breast feeding is the natural way to feed a baby. It can be started immediately after birth.
Exclusive breast feeding is the practice of placing the baby on breast milk only from birth to six months.
The first milk produced in the first few days by a nursing mother is called colostrum. It helps to clear the baby first sticky stool called meconium.
Advantages of Breast Feeding
- Breast milk contains all the nutrients needed by a baby more than any other food.
- It contains antibodies which protect the baby against infections and diseases.
iii. It is produced at the right temperature.
- It is easily digested and absorbed by the baby.
- It is cheaper than artificial feeding.
- It does not require any elaborate preparation
vii. Breast milk is also sterile and clean.
viii. It strengthens mother and child bond.
- Artificial or Bottle Feeding
This is the process of feeding a baby with artificial milk through the feeding bottle. Although breast milk is the best for a baby, there are times it becomes necessary to bottle-feed a baby such as:
- When mother is working full time outside the home.
- When there are multiple births, e.g. twins or triplets.
- When mother is sick and cannot breast feed.
Disadvantages of Bottle-Feeding
- It is expensive.
- It causes constipation for the baby.
iii. Artificial milk is not as rich as breast milk.
- The milk can easily be contaminated by germs.
- It requires elaborate preparation and sterilization of feeding unit.
- It does not make for close contact between mother and child.
- CLOTHING: Children need clothing that is suitable for different weather conditions.
- EXERCISE: Children need plenty of exercises which will help them to develop strong bones, muscles and motor skills.
- REST: Children are very active and they grow rapidly. Therefore they need plenty of rest. Good sleeping habits promote health and well-being.
- MEDICAL CARE: Good medical attention is very important for the development of the children.
- SAFE AND CONDUCIVE ENVIRONMENT: Parents must provide safe environment for their children always. This includes the home environment.
- List five conditions necessary for a child’s development.
- State three advantages of breast feeding.
COMMON CHILDHOOD AILMENTS
- COLIC: Colic is caused by cramps in the intestines of the baby. It causes real discomfort and pain. It is common during the first 3-4 months, but much less after that.
2.CONSTIPATION: This involves passing of hard stool at long intervals or not passing it at all. It is common with bottle-fed babies. It can also be caused by unsuitable diet or by fever. To treat constipation, give the child extra water to drink. Alternatively, give the child more fruit juice or add very small glucose to its feed. Serious cases should be taken to doctor.
- DIARRHOEA: Diarrhoea is a sudden increase in the number of bowel movements, especially if they are loose and watery. It could be due to unsuitable diet, over feeding, infection or disease. It can be treated by giving the child oral rehydration therapy (ORT) after each stool. Serious cases should be taken to the clinic.
- NAPPY RASH: This occurs when a child has rashes in the nappy area. It could be due to:
- using dirty napkins/nappies on baby
- leaving soiled napkin/diaper on the baby for long time.
- not rinsing baby’s napkins properly after washing.
- not cleaning the napkin area (baby’s buttocks) properly when changing napkin.
To treat this, clean baby’s buttock properly and apply special nappy rash lotions or powder. Stop baby from wearing nappy until rashes disappear.
TOYS FOR CHILDREN
Toys play an important role in the life of a child. Toys are tools for learning. As a baby grows, he/she enjoys playing with things. It is therefore important to provide babies with toys that suit their age levels.
Uses of Toys
- Toys keep children busy.
- They are tools for learning.
- Toys make children happy.
- They help to develop, promote sharing and getting along with others.
- State three uses of toys for children.
- List and explain two common childhood ailment.
Immunization is the process whereby a person is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically by the administration of vaccine. Vaccines stimulate the body’s own immune system to protect the person against subsequent infection or disease
Types of Immunization
- B.C.G. Vaccine: This is an intradermal injection given at the neonatal period to fight against tuberculosis.
- Triple Antigen (D.P.T.): This is a mixture of three vaccines which are tetanus, whooping cough and diphtheria vaccines. It is given as intramuscular injection for protection against the three diseases.
- Poliomyelitis Vaccine: This is for protection against polio. There are two types of polio vaccine; one taken orally through the mouth and the other through intramuscular injection.
- Small pox Vaccine: this is given by injection to protect against smallpox.
- Measles Vaccine: It is given by injection to protect against measles.
- Yellow fever Vaccine: It is given to protect against yellow fever.
- Hepatitis B Vaccine: It is given to protect a child against hepatitis B disease.
1. At birth
ii. First dose of Hepatitis B
2. At about 2 months (6 weeks)
i. First dose of D.P.T.
ii. First dose of polio vaccine
iii. Second dose of hepatitis B
3. At about 3 months( 10 weeks)
i. Second dose of D.P.T.
ii. Second dose of polio vaccine
4. At about 4 months ( 14 weeks)
i. Third dose of D.P.T.
ii. Third dose of polio vaccine.
5. At 6 months
First dose of vitamin A
6. At 9 months
i. Measles vaccine
ii. Yellow fever vaccine
7. At 12 months
Second dose of vitamin A ( vitamin A drop every 6 months until 5 years)
The Expanded Programme on Immunization (E.P.I.)
This is a health programme designed to protect children of 0-5 years of age from six deadly diseases. These diseases are tetanus, whooping cough, diphtheria, polio, measles and tuberculosis.
- State five principles of development.
- State five disadvantages of bottle-feeding.
- List and explain three types of immunization.
- State four basic principles of marketing.
- State three characteristics of fats and oil.
Home Economics for JSS 1-3 by Elizabeth U. Anyakoha. Pages 353-364.
Home Economics New Concept Book 3 by Popoola O.O. Pages 118-133.
- ______ feeding is the natural way to feed a baby.A. Bottle B. Breast C. Regular
- _________ prevents children from diseases.A. Air B. Love C. Immunization
- Oral Rehydration Therapy (O.R.T.) is used for the treatment ofA. fever B. colic C. constipation D. diarrhea
- Which of the following immunization should be given at birth?A. B.C.G. vaccine
- Triple vaccine C. Smallpox vaccine D. D.P.T. vaccine
- _______ is an increase in the physical size of the whole body or any of its part.A. Life B. Growth C. Energy D. Development
- List and explain the three areas of development.
- Differentiate between breast feeding and bottle feeding.