SUBJECT: HOME ECONOMICS
CLASS: JSS 3
TERM: 2nd TERM
- Home Economics New Concept Book 3 by Popoola O.O Mrs
- Home Economics for Junior Senior Schools Book 1 – 3 by Elizabeth Anyakoha Mrs
TOPIC: FAMILY LIVING AND RELATIONSHIP (PREGNANCY AND ANTI-NATAL)
CONTENT: PREGNANCY- Meaning
Pregnancy is the result of the fertilization of the female ovum or egg by the male cell or sperm. A woman has two ovaries and each of the ovaries in a woman produces an ovum every month. The process of producing an ovum by the ovary is called ovulation. So, if there is a sexual relationship or intercourse between a man and a woman at the period when the ovum is produced, the sperm will fertilize the ovum (egg). The result is pregnancy.
If there is no sexual relationship, the released ovum will die off after a few days. Then, menstruation will occur. Menstruation is the flow of blood which each normal woman of child-bearing age experiences every month; unless she is pregnant.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF PREGNANCY
- Menstruation stops.
- Breasts become fuller and tender with the nipples getting darker.
- Nausea and vomiting (known as morning sickness).
- There will be frequent urination.
- The abdomen enlarges from about three months. There is also enlargement of the hips.
- Development of good or bad appetite, as applicable to individuals.
- Vaginal discharge.
- Movement of the baby as the pregnancy advances.
- How does pregnancy occur?
- State three signs of pregnancy
Ante-natal care is the attention or care given to a pregnant woman from the beginning of her pregnancy to the day she delivers the baby. It simply refers to the care required by a pregnant woman before the birth of her child.
Ante-natal care includes regular visits to ante-natal clinic where the following tests will be carried out:
- Urine test
- Blood test
- Blood pressure
- Weight check
- Abdominal examination
- Pelvic assessment towards the end of the pregnancy.
At the ante-natal clinic, the woman learns the following:
- Good nutrition- She will be advised on what to eat to guarantee her own health and that of the unborn baby (or babies). Emphasis will be on eating balanced and nutritious meal all the time.
- Proper clothing- She will be advised to wear loose, comfortable and attractive clothes. High heel shoes should be avoided.
- Good personal hygiene- At the clinic, she will be taught how to maintain good hygiene such as bathing regularly, inspecting her breasts, brushing her teeth, etc.
- Avoidance of smoking and alcohol- They are dangerous to the health of the baby and they must be avoided during pregnancy.
- Avoidance of strenuous work- Work such as lifting heavy objects or standing for long time should be avoided during pregnancy.
- Regular exercise and rest- She will learn how to perform some mild exercises and have enough / adequate rest.
Importance of Ante-natal Care
- The tests carried out in the clinic will help to correct some problems which may affect the mother or
the unborn baby if not detected.
- It helps the foetus to develop properly.
- It helps to prepare the mother adequately for the delivery and remove unnecessary fear from the
- Ante-natal care also helps the mother to keep well and fit.
- The mother learns how to take care of herself and the baby from the ante-natal clinic.
- What is ante-natal care?
- Explain three things a woman learns in ante-natal clinic.
PREPARATION FOR CHILD BIRTH
It is very important that a pregnant mother prepares well for the delivery in advance. The following are the things needed for child birth:
For the mother
- Personal clothing e.g. night gown, nursing brassieres, pants, etc.
- Sanitary pads
- Toiletries e.g. toilet soap, cream, powder, etc.
- Disinfectant such as Dettol.
For the Baby
- Baby clothes
- Nappies/ diapers
- Blanket or shawl
- Baby’s toiletries such as baby soap, lotion, powder, etc.
Baby layette is the complete set of clothes required by a new born baby. The baby layette or part of it should be provided before the baby arrives.
Suitable Layette for a Baby
- Two or three dozen napkins. Disposable diapers can also be used.
- Three to four plastic pants.
- Three night dresses.
- Three special napkin safety pins.
- One shawl
- Five bibs
- Four vests
- Two pairs of bootees and socks/stockings
- Four outing clothes
- Two sweaters
For Baby’s cot
- Two to four cot sheets (bed sheets)
- One or two blankets
- One large plastic/rubber sheet
- Mosquito net
For baby’s bath
- One large towel
- One small towel
- One face towel
Uses of Baby Layette
- To protect the baby.
- To keep the baby warm.
- To make baby comfortable.
- To enhance baby’s appearance.
- What is baby layette?
- State three uses of baby layette.
POST NATAL CARE
Post natal care is the attention/care given to a mother from the day of delivery up to six weeks after. Six weeks after delivery, the nursing mother and the baby will visit the post natal clinic for check- up. At the clinic:
- The mother is examined by the doctor to make sure she is healthy and fit.
- The baby is also examined to ensure he/she is normal and well.
- The mother is advised on:
- How to look after herself and the baby;
- Necessary immunization and
- Family planning i.e. how to space her children.
- Explain baby layette.
- State three uses of baby layette.
- State four signs of puberty each in girls and boys.
- State two effect of lack of proper nutrition during pregnancy
- List the food groups with the nutrient(s) under each group.
Home Economics for JSS 1-3 by Elizabeth U. Anyakoha. Pages 346-350
Home Economics New Concept book 3 by Popoola. Pages 110-116
- One of the following is not a test carried out during ante-natal. A. Blood test B. Complexion test C. Urine test D. Weight check
- The process of producing an ovum by ovary is called A. menstruation B. ovulation C. fertilization D. reproduction
- ________ occurs when the ovum is fertilized by a sperm. A. Infertility B. Child birth C. Pregnancy D. Menstruation
- The care required by a pregnant mother before child birth is __________ care.A. child B. post-natal C. normal D. ante-natal
- A pregnant woman should avoid ________ clothes. A. tight B. free C. clean D. comfortable
- (a) Define baby layette. (b) State three uses of baby layette
- (a) Differentiate between ovulation and menstruation.
(b) List three suggested layettes for a baby.