Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Junior Secondary School 3





Reference Materials







  • Definition of Building Construction          
  • Types of Building
  •  Stages In Building Construction 
  • Doors
  • Windows

Definition of Building construction: These are the techniques and industry involved in the assembly and erection of structures. Early humans built primarily for shelter, using simple methods. Building materials came from the land, and fabrication was dictated by the limits of the materials and the builder's hands. The erection sequence involved, as now, first placing a foundation (or using the ground). The builder erected the structural system; the structural material (masonry, mud, or logs) served as both skeleton and enclosure. Traditional bearing-wall and post-and-beam systems eventually gave way to framed structures, and builders became adept at sealing and fireproofing with a variety of claddings (exterior coverings) and finishes. Steel-framed buildings are usually enclosed by curtain walls. In modern-day construction, sheathing the skeleton of the building is only the beginning; specialists then begin the bulk of the work inside, installing plumbing, electrical wiring, HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning), windows, floor coverings, plasterwork, moldings, ceramic tile, cabinets, and other features.


  1. Define building construction 
  2. Briefly explain important steps in building construction 

Types of building

  • Bungalow: It is dwelling built in a style developed from that of a form of rural house in India. The original bungalow typically has one story, few rooms, and a maximum of cross drafts, with high ceilings, unusually large window and door openings, and verandas on all sides to shade the rooms from the intense light and tropical heat. A house that is built on one level 
  • One-storey building: A house that has a ground floor and the first floor only.
  • Multi-storey building: A house that has many levels.
  • Skyscrapers: A very tall building. 
  • Detached building: A house that is joined with another building at one side.
  • Semi-Detached building: A house that is joined with another building at one side.
  • Duplex: A house that is made up of two apartments. 
  • Mansion: A very large house.
  • Terraced houses: These are blocks of building that are constructed together side by side.



  1. State 10 types of building and explain  


Stages in building construction 

  1. Deciding on the types of building and where to locate it.
  2. Designing the building and producing the working drawings for the builders.


Stages in building construction 

  1. Deciding on the types of building and where to locate it.
  2. Designing the building and producing the working drawings for the builders.
  3. Building operations: 
  •  Setting out the size
  • laying the foundation
  • Erection of the walls
  • Construction of the floors 
  • Roofing of the building.


  1. Briefly explain the blue print of the above building plan
  2. State the stages of building construction



Movable barrier installed in the entry of a room or building to restrict access or provide visual privacy. Early doors were hides or textiles. With monumental architecture came pivoting doors of rigid, permanent materials; important chambers often had stone or bronze doors. Pompeiian doors looked much like modern wooden doors; they were constructed of stiles (vertical planks) and rails (horizontal planks) fastened together to support panels and occasionally equipped with locks and hinges. The typical Western medieval door was of vertical planks backed with horizontal or diagonal bracing. In the 20th century, a single, hollow-core panel door became most common. Other types include the revolving door, folding door, sliding door (inspired by the Japanese shoji), rolling door, and Dutch door (divided horizontally so that the lower or upper part can be opened separately).

Functions of doors

  1. They serve means of shutting and opening the entrance or exit.
  2. They serve as barriers against dangers and attacks
  3. They serve as protection of lives and properties.
  4. They serve as means of ventilation.


Types of doors

  1. Interior doors
  • Panel doors
  • Flush doors
  • French doors
  • Louver doors
  1. Exterior doors: They are used for decorative purpose only. They are carefully chosen to suit the architectural design of the building.   
  2. Sliding doors: They are space-saving doors, which are for closets in bedrooms.
  3. Folding Doors: These are doors, which are easily installed. 
  4. Revolving Doors: They are usually traffic control doors within a building



  1. State 4 functions of doors
  2. State 5 types of doors



Windows, today, are more of architectural features rather than mere necessary opening in a wall. 


Function of windows

  1. It is used for admitting light and air.
  2. It serves as barriers to dangers and attacks.
  3. It is used to allow ventilation.


We have the following architectural designed windows:

  1. Bull’s eye windows
  2. Semi-circular headed windows.
  3. Cant bay windows
  4. Dormer windows




  1. State 4 functions of windows
  2. State 5 types of windows

Reading Assignment



Reference Materials   

  1. NERDC, Introductory Technology for JSS, book 3, pages 218 -228
  2. EVANS, Introductory Technology for JSS, book 3, pages 130 -138


Weekend Assignment 

  1. The following are types of building except (a) Terraced house (b) Sheraton  hotel (c) Bungalow (d) Sky scraper
  2. Blocks of building that are constructed together side by side is called ____ (a) Terraced house (b) one-storey (c) Bungalow (d) Sky scraper
  3. The following are building operations except (a) setting out (b) erection of walls (c) roofing (d) contracting 
  4. The type of floor that consists of a series of closely spaced reinforced I-beams framing into girders is called __ (a) one-way ribbed slab (b) one-way reinforced floors (c) two-way reinforced floors (d) pre-cast concrete floors
  5. The following are examples of interior doors except (a) panel doors (b) flush doors (c) French doors (d) revolving doors



  1. State the functions of door.
  2. State the different types of floor


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