Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Junior Secondary School 3

Farm records and Book-keeping

Date: 30th of January- 17th of February 2023

Class: JSS 3

Term: 2nd Term

Week: 4-6

Subject: Agricultural Science

Topic: Farm Records and Book Keeping

Duration:45 minutes

Teaching Aid: A chart

Reference Book: WABP Junior secondary Agriculture for Nigerian School 1 by Anthony Youdeowei et al

Behavioural Objective: By the end of this topic, students should be able to

  1. Define farm record and state its importance
  2. Define book keeping
  3. Describe types of farm records


Step 1: Teacher revises last topic

Step 2: Teacher introduces and explains new topic

Step 3: Teacher writes note on the board

Step 4: Teacher evaluates students

Step 5: Teacher marks students' notes and give assignment

Previous knowledge: Students have been taught farm management


Farm Records

Farm records are written account of work expenses and income in farming enterprises.

Importance of Farm records

  1. Farm records enable the farmer to make proper return to the boards of internal revenue for correct tax assessment
  2. It provides the farmers with the clear idea of how much money is coming in and how much it is wise to spend
  3. It enables the farmers to know whether he is making profit or loss
  4. It helps the farmer to obtain loans and subsides from government
  5. It helps the farmers to make budgets and plan his business
  6. It enables the farmers to make good management and decision


Book keeping is the recording, on a day-to-day basis, of the financial transactions and information pertaining to a business. It ensures that records of the individual financial transactions are correct, up-to-date and comprehensive. Accuracy is therefore vital to the process.

Book keeping provides the information from which accounts are prepared. It is a distinct process that occurs within the broader scope of accounting.

Each transaction, whether it is a question of purchase or sale, must be recorded. There are usually set structures in place for bookkeeping that are called ‘quality controls’, which help ensure timely and accurate records.

Recording transactions

In principle, transactions must be recorded daily into the books or the accounting system.

For each transaction, there must be a document that describes the business transaction. This could include a sales invoice, sales receipt, a supplier invoice, a supplier payment, bank payments and journals.

These accompanying documents provide the audit trail for each transaction and are an important part of maintaining accurate records in the event of an audit.

Types of Farm records

There are many records that needs to be kept in a farm, some of which are

Farm diary: This is a record of day to day records of everything that happens in a farm.

Farm inventory: A record of all asset owned by the farmers and the cash values of the item e.g. land, equipment, crops in the farm and in storage.

Input records: This is a record of all the items in running the farm during the years; it’s used in calculating the farm profit

Production Records: A record of all items produced in the farm, it enables the farmers to know which projects are more profitable.

Labour Diary: This is a records of day to day work done on the farm, it’s uses to determine the work done, amount of labour expended and the cost at the end of each operation

Sales records: A records of all products sold by the farmer e.g. eggs, yam, goat etc

Consumption records: A record of all farm product consumed by the farmer and his family

Assignment: Design any type of farm record for a farm business

© Lesson Notes All Rights Reserved 2023