Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Junior Secondary School 3






  • Basis Science Made Easy for JSS Three by F.I Kehinde et al
  • Basis Science Made Easy for JSS Two by F.I Kehinde et al
  • STAN Integrated Science for JSS Three
  • Precious Seeds Basic Science for JSSThree by J.O Otugboyega et al.





  • Meaning of Teenage Pregnancy
  • Consequences of Teenage Pregnancy and Delivery
  • Myths and Facts About Pregnancy


Teenage pregnancy refers to pregnancy in a girl between the ages of 10-19. Teenage pregnancy is usually unintended and unwanted. The fact that you are at pubertal age and can get pregnant physically does not mean that you are really mature to be pregnant socially, emotionally, educationally even financially.

Teenage pregnancy can be dangerous for both the mother and the unborn child. Complication at child birth, and unsafe abortion, usually result from teenage pregnancy.



The following are some of the consequences of a girl who got pregnant at the unripe age of teens.

  1. Health Risks: Pregnancy induced hypertension, which can cause heart failure and death of both mother and the child. This type of pregnancy can lead to a condition whereby the girl’s pelvic opening is too small to allow the infants head to pass during delivery. This may cause tear between the vagina and the urinary tract (vesico vagina fistula) or rectum(recto vagina fistula). Caesarian section (C.S) may result because the hips are not widened enough for the baby to come through the pelvis.
  2. Unsafe Abortion:  Since teenage pregnancy is unwanted, they are likely to seek abortion from untrained health care providers or can go on self-medication for self-induced abortion.
  3. Socio-economic:
      1. Termination of education.
      2. Stigmatization
      3. Life span and career goals are disrupted 
      4. Early marriage due to pregnancy
      5. Isolation from peers and low self esteem
      6. Low income and economic dependence
      7. Force marriage
      8. Poverty
      9. Emotional feeling of guilt and fear
      10. Loose of childhood and adopting to adulthood.




Myth: Girls should not use contraceptives.

Fact: Girls should abstain from sexual intercourse so as to prevent themselves using contraceptives but if they have sexual intercourse and use contraceptive, it is safe and can prevent teenage pregnancy.Thus contraceptives are not for bad girls.


Myth: The contraceptives causes the following:

    1. It destroys the womb.
    2. It makes one infertile for life.
    3. It makes one thin.
    4. It reduces one’s breast size.

Fact: Only a few contraceptive may cause delay in fertility. Contraceptives do not damage the womb but drug overdose or abuse and unsafe abortion may damage the womb.


Myth: The condom reduces sensitivity during sexual intercourse.

Fact: There are very thin latex condoms and textured condoms that favour sensitivity in sexual relation.


Myth: A woman can get pregnant as a result of kiss.

Fact: Spermatozoa must penetrate the vagina for fertilization to take place somewhere in fallopian tube.


Myth: It is better for a woman to have children while still young as she can see them grow.

Fact: The ideal age for pregnancy is between 25 and 35.


Myth: For a woman to obtain the love of a man, she must have child for him.

Fact: Pregnancy does not guarantee a good relationship. A partner can leave even after there is a child in the relationship.



  1. Mention five reasons why you will not engage in sexual intercourse now as a JSS 3 student.
  2. Mention five ways teenage pregnancy can be prevented



  • Meaning of Abortion
  • Types of Abortion
  • Reasons for Abortion
  • Unsafe abortion and it Consequences
  • Ways to Prevent Abortion
  • Where to get help


Meaning of abortion

Abortion is the deliberate termination of a human pregnancy, most often performed during the first 28 weeks. It is the ending of pregnancy by removing a foetus or embryo before it can survive outside the uterus. An abortion that occurs spontaneously is also known as a miscarriage. An abortion may be caused purposely and is then called an induced abortion.



There are two main types of abortion and they are;

(i)   SpontaneousAbortion(ii)Induced Abortion


Spontaneous Abortionis an unintentional abortion caused as a result of faulty development of embryo, abnormality of placenta, hormonal disturbances, acute infection, severe trauma or shock. It is commonly called miscarriage.


Induced Abortionis the intentional removal of foetus. Induced abortion can either be surgical or medical.

(a) Medical Abortion: This is the abortion done or induced with the use if one or more pills

(b) Surgical Abortion: This form involves minor surgical operation to induce abortion.



The following are some of the reasons why people engage in abortion:

  1. Teenage pregnancy or unwanted pregnancy.
  2. Pregnancy as a result of rape.
  3. Poverty and lack of financial capacity to care for the unborn child.
  4. Medical complication at the onset of the pregnancy that may endanger the life if the mother or the foetus.
  5. Lack of readiness.



An unsafe abortion is the abortion done without proper medical supervision. Unsafe abortion is usually by using over-the-counter drugs or carried out by quack medical practitioners. 

Teenagers are lured to unsafe abortion for the following reasons:

  1. The fears of letting someone know about their pregnancy.
  2. To avoid social stigma.
  3. To protect their education and future.


As convincing as they sound, these reasons don't weigh up to the consequences that comes with unsafe abortion. The following are the consequences of unsafe abortion:

  1. Unsafe abortion may lead to the damage of internal organs like the womb.
  2. It is painful and horrible.
  3. Teenager can get infected from the unsafe process of abortion which may cause more severe disease like uterine fibroid.
  4. It leads to the death of the teenagers.
  5. It endangers the teenager as the quack doctor may further molest her.
  6. There is a psychological breakdown if the teenager cannot endure going through the abortion.



  1. What is abortion?
  2. State four consequences of unsafe abortion.



The following can help prevent abortion or reasons to abortion:

  1. Abstinence: Teenagers should avoid having any until they are physically and psychologically matured to take responsibility.
  2. Avoid unsafe and unprotected by using condoms.
  3. Women should go for medical checkup to prevent medical complication during pregnancy.
  4. Keep responsible friends and partner.
  5. Create a mindset against abortion.
  6. Meet your school counselor for advice on abstinence.
  7. Avoid sex promoting/pornographic content.
  8. Always remember that the negative consequences of abortion outweigh the benefits.



Teenagers need help on what to do when faced with abortion related challenges. Here are some of the things you can do when faced with a challenge:

  1. Talk to your parents about the about the situation
  2. Meet a counselor for an advice on what to do.
  3. There are also teenagers-support NGOs that can help. 
  4. Join a school social club against teenage pregnancy and abortion. E.g. anti AIDS club.
  5. Join a true religious or social body that can help with teenage pregnancy and abortion related issues.



  1. Mentionsevenimplicationsofteenagepregnancy
  2. Whatarehormones?
  3. Whatisabortion?
  4. Mentionfourreasonsforengaginginabortion.
  5. Explainwhylighteningisseenbeforethunder.
  6. Whatisamachine?



Basic Science for Junior Secondary School by J.O. Otugboyega et al. Page 127-130




  • The type of abortion that involves taking over-the-counter drugs is  (a) Traditional  (b) Medical (c) Surgical  (d) None of the above
  • A developing child in the womb is called a  (a) Baby  (b) Foetus  (c) Zygote  (d) None of the above
  • Which of the following is not a way of preventing abortion  (a) living reckless life  (b) Abstinence  (c) safe sex  (d) None of the above
  • Where does the foetus develop  (a) fallopian tube  (b) uterus  (c) vagina     (d) None of the above
  • A person who constantly performs illegal abortion is called  (a) Oncologist  (b) Therapist  (c) Abortionist  (d) None of the above




  • Explain with reason why abortion should or should not be legalized in Nigeria.
  • What advice will you give to a pregnant teenager based on your knowledge of the topic?

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