SUBJECT: HOME ECONOMICS
CLASS: JSS 3
TERM: 2nd TERM
- Home Economics New Concept Book 3 by Popoola O.O Mrs
- Home Economics for Junior Senior Schools Book 1 – 3 by Elizabeth Anyakoha Mrs
WEEK FOUR & FIVE
TOPIC: FEEDING THE FAMILY
CONTENT: MEAL PLANNING
NUTRITIONAL NEEDS OF FAMILY MEMBERS
MEANING OF VEGETARIANS
TYPES OF VEGETARIANS
SUGGESTED MEALS FOR VEGETARIANS
Meal planning involves choosing a menu or a list of foods that will be included in a meal.
Importance of Meal Planning
- Meal planning is a good guide for the purchase of food needs.
- It makes the service of a balanced meal regular and consistent.
- It prevents food wastages.
- It allows for a great variety of meals for the family.
- Meal planning allows for wise use of scarce resources.
Factors that Influence Meal Planning
- Age of the family members.
- Occupations or activities of family members.
- Money available.
- Size of the family.
- Likes and dislikes of family members.
- Health condition of the family members.
- Equipment or facilities available.
- Season of the year.
- Time available.
- Locality or place where family resides.
- What is meal planning?
- State five factors that can influence meal planning.
Guidelines for Meal Planning
- The meal must contain all the necessary food nutrients.
- Provide for the nutritional needs of all family members in the meal plan.
- Avoid monotony by varying foods.
- Make use of food in season. These are normally cheaper and could be of better quality than foods that are not in season.
- Buy the best foods your money can afford.
- Buy good quality foods.
- Plan meals several days ahead of time so as to save money and time.
Procedure for meal planning
* There are three main meals each day, namely:
- Breakfast – morning meal;
- Lunch – afternoon meal and
iii. Supper – evening meal.
* Snacks are refreshments which are served in-between meals when desired.
* Each meal is made up of a number of courses.
* A course is a part of a meal. A formal meal or menu is made up of three courses, and is called a three-course meal.
* A three-course meal is made up of three courses or dishes, which are:
- Appetizer which stimulates the appetite.
- Main dish which is the main course.
iii. Dessert also known as sweet dish which is taken after the main dish.
- State three guidelines for meal planning.
- Write the three parts of a three-course meal.
NUTRITIONAL NEEDS OF FAMILY MEMBERS
- YOUNG CHILDREN (Infants: 0-1year and Toddlers: 1-2years)
Young children are growing rapidly; therefore they require foods for growth, energy and protection against diseases.
The following guidelines must be followed in providing meals for them:
- a) The meal must be well balanced i.e. it must contain all the nutrients.
- b) Meal times must be regular
- c) Avoid giving food rich in sweets and chocolates which may cause tooth decay.
- d) Young children’s meals must be cooked by the most easily digested methods, e.g. steaming, stewing, etc.
- e) Foods should be cooked, served and eaten in a clean and attractive place.
They are also growing and active. Their meals must be balanced. They require more of energy-giving foods than the young children.
This is the period between 12-18years. The nutritional needs of these groups are higher than all other groups of people. They need larger quantity of food to enable them cope with the developmental changes taking place in their body. Their meals must also be balanced.
Adolescent girls require increased intake of iron. This is to make up for that which they lose monthly during menstruation.
These are mature people, who have stopped growing. They only need food for energy and maintenance and not for growth. An adult’s diet should be balanced and suitable for his/her work, health and age. Overweight must be avoided.
- The Manual worker – This group of people involved in manual jobs which are strenuous e.g. farming, wood cutting, bricklaying, etc. They require increase in intake of energy-giving foods.
- Sedentary worker – Sedentary work is not strenuous. It involves sitting down. They do not require much of energy foods in diets.
- Pregnant women – They are also known as expectant mothers. They require extra nutrients in addition to the balanced diet which they require as adults. This is to provide for the nutritional needs of the unborn baby. Their diets should include plenty of milk, fresh fruits, fish, vegetables, beans, etc. and a small quantity of energy food.
- Lactating mothers – They are also known as nursing mother. These are mothers who are breast-feeding babies. They require extra nutrients as the expectant mothers in order to produce enough milk and make up for what was lost during pregnancy and child-birth.
- Invalids and Convalescent- An invalid is a person who is sick while a convalescent is someone is no longer sick, but is in the process of gradual recovery after illness.
The following guidelines must be observed for the two groups:
Doctor’s instructions must be followed.
Meals must be balanced.
Meals must be cooked by the most easily digested methods such as stewing, steaming, etc. Frying should be avoided.
Make foods appetizing.
- Elderly People/ Aged – They are often characterized by reduced physical activity. They therefore spend less energy. This means their energy-food consumption should be reduced. Their needs for proteins, vitamins and minerals remain unchanged. Their food must be easy to chew and digested.
- State four guidelines for preparation of meals for young children.
- Mention the particular mineral element needed by an adolescent girl and why?
Vegetarians are people who do not eat flesh of animals, fish, poultry and/or their products. They eat foods of vegetable origin only.
TYPES OF VEGETARIANS
- The strict vegetarians: They are also known as vegans. They do not eat animal flesh and their products, but eat only vegetables or plant foods.
- Lacto vegetarians: People in this category do not eat flesh of animal, fish or poultry, but drink milk and milk products such as cheese, yoghurt, etc. with vegetables.
- Lacto-ovo vegetables:They eat animal products like eggs, milk and their products, but will avoid the flesh of animals, fish, poultry, etc.
- Define the term ‘Vegetarian’
- List and explain the three types of vegetarians.
SUGGESTED MENU FOR VEGETARIANS
- Fruit juice
- Vegetable with bean stew
- Fruit drink
Moimoi with pap and milk
- Vegetable stew with boiled rice and beans
- Pineapple juice
Toasted bread and milk
- Moimoi and jollof rice
- Differentiate between balanced diet and classes of food.
- Differentiate between a sedentary worker and manual worker.
- Plan a balanced menu for a toddler.
- State the food groups with examples.
- State five safety procedures in the kitchen.
Home Economics for JSS1-3 by Elizabeth U. Anyakoha. Pages 309-314.
Home Economics New concept book 3 by Popoola. Pages 72-82.
- One of the following may not influence meal planningA. AgeB. Height C. Money D. Health
- Which of the following groups do not require much energy food in their diet?A. The aged B. The invalids C. The manual workers D. The children
- Excessive consumption of sweets by children can lead toA. good teeth B. strong teeth C. tooth decay D. tooth growth
- Which of the following groups of people require increased intake of iron?A. Adolescent boys B. The aged C. Manual worker D. Adolescent girls
- A strict vegetarian will not eat anyA. food B. animal foodC. carrot D. vegetable protein
- State the difference(s) between a pregnant woman and a lactating mother.
- State three guidelines to follow when preparing meals for an invalid or a convalescent.