Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Junior Secondary School 3

Structure: Conjunctions

SUBJECT: ENGLISH LANGUAGE                                     




TOPIC: Structure: Conjunctions


A conjunction is a word that joins words, phrases or sentences together, eg; for, and, or etc, to show the relationship between them.


There are three types of conjunctions-:. Coordinating conjunctions, subordinating conjunctions and correlative conjunctions.


  1. Coordinating conjunctions are used to join similar parts of speech, clauses or sentences of equal value. The most common ones among them are: “and”, “but” and or.


  1. They want John and Mary
  2. Boys and girls sometimes think differently
  3. The women sang and danced
  4. The girls were very beautiful but very rude
  5. You may fry the egg or boil it.


  1. Subordinating conjunctions: These are simply called subordinators. They are used to join main clauses to subordinate clauses. Examples of the most common ones among them are: when, where, while, why, although, because, if, since, after, until / till, that, unless, as and in order that.


  1. After she finished her work, she took a nap. (showing time).
  2. Emmanuel was sleeping when the telephone rang. (time)
  3. I hid the golden ring where nobody could find it. (place).       
  4. They were happy because their mother bought them new toys. (reason)
  5. Although I was angry, I didn’t show it. (concession).


  1. Correlative conjunctions are used in pairs; e.g; neither nor, either or, both and , and not only, but also.


  1. Both Kunle and Tinuke are my cousins
  2. Either you or Ngozi will be chosen    
  3. Neither my father nor my mother could answer the questions
  4. You may not only sleep but also have your meals here



Do practice exercise seventeen, questions 1&2, page 15 of English Grammar by P.O. Olatunbosun.



The New Student’s Companion For Secondary School by Chris Talbot: Exam Focus English for JSCE.



Read “Conjunctions” on page 74 of English Grammar by P.O. Olatunbosun.


TOPIC: Speech work: Consonant Contrast \ θ \ and \  s \


Consonant \ θ \ is known as a voiceless dental fricative while consonant \ s \ is a

voiceless alveolar plosive. In other words, both of them are voiceless sounds, but while

one is a fricative, the other is a plosive. Consider the following pairs of words:     

θ \                    \ s \

thumb                    sum   

mouth                    mouse

path                    pass

throw                    sow

think                    sink

thick                    sick

thing                    sing

thigh                    sigh

thin                    sin



Produce any ten pairs of your own.



Countdown English by Ogunsanwo; Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary



Read chapter 14, page 113-144 of Exam Focus, English for JSCE


TOPIC: Listening Comprehension: Seed Dispersal


The development of listening skills



The passage gives a description of how most kinds of plant increase their number through seed dispersal.



Do the practice on Listening passage on page131



Effective English for J.S.S bk3



Read the passage on seed dispersal; page 246.


TOPIC: Dictation: Words that are commonly mis-spelt.


Some words are commonly mis-spelt for the following reasons:

  1. transpositions of letters e.g, “ie” and “ei” as in:

    believe            ceiling

    fierce            deceive

    field            seize

  1. assimilation of a letter as in:

    debt ‘b’ is not pronounced 

    listen ‘t’ is not pronounced

    honest ‘h’ is not pronounced

    pneumonia ‘p’ is not pronounced 

    sword ‘w’ is not pronounced

iii.    The contemporary convention of shortening some words as in:

    Exam            -         Examination

    Libry            -        Library 

    Lab            -        Laboratory

Program        -        Programme

  1. Some different letters are pronounced alike:

    gh        f    ph        ff

    cough        half    graph        cuff

    g        gue

    big        fatigue

s        z

    please        is \iz\

    feasible                zebra

    ck        c        k        que

    cock        zinc        pink        boutique

  1. double consonant as in:

committee        accommodation


  1. Noun plurals as in:

    baby        babies

    body        bodies

    wife        wives

vii.    Word class as in:

    Noun         verb

    Practice        practise 

    Licence        license

    Advice        advise



Correct the following words.

  1. Refferred
  2. Reservation
  3. Segregation
  4. Installation
  5. Accummulation
  6. Boundries
  7. Residue
  8. Jerminate



Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary; English Grammar by P.O Olatunbosun.



Read page 97-98 of English Grammar by P.O Olatunbosun.


TOPIC: Writing: Report writing 


A report refers to a spoken or written account of an event. Thus, report writing is an act of 

presenting an account of an event that has taken place in a written form. A report can either be formal or informal.


A formal report is one which is presented as a formal document giving details of an event. E.g;  robbery, an accident, the proceedings of a meeting etc. To write a good report, one must:

  1. have a good knowledge of the audience or the reader.
  2. have a good knowledge of the use of direct and indirect speech forms.
  3. pay a close attention to tenses.


Features of a Formal Report

  1. Writer’s address with date
  2. Receiver’s address 

iii.    Salutation

  1. Title
  2. Text of the report
  3. Writer’s name 

vii.    (designation).


Informal Report: This is a report that is not written for official reasons: When writing an informal report, take note of the following:

  1. make out an outline to guide you.
  2. report both what you have seen and what others have said.
  3. emphasize the facts but avoid exaggeration
  4. make correct statements or personal remarks without prejudice.
  5. avoid expressions that cannot be found in the dictionary.
  6. give sufficient details of the event.
  7. try as much as possible  to add your own contribution either by giving suggestions or offering solutions to problems that may have risen in the report.
  8. pay attention to tenses.



There was a fight between a boy and a girl in your class. The girl was beaten up by the boy such that she fainted and was rushed to the sick-bay. The principal of your school heard about the incident and asked you to write your own report of what actually happened and your contribution as the class-captain.  



Countdown English by Ogunsanwo



Read pages 44&45 of the Effective English Bk3



  1. Use a pronoun or an adverb as a sub-ordinate conjunction to fill the space in each of the sentence.
  1. Ladi is the student _______ solved the problem
  2. The book _________ I read has forty pages.
  3. The student _________ he flogged wept bitterly.
  4. She arrived _________ we expected her. 
  5. He will eat ___________ you give him.
  1. Fill in the gap with the correct letter(s).
  1. privile_e   (g, dg)
  2. boyco_    (t, tt)
  3. d_lapidated   (e,  i)
  4. extra_dinary   (o, or, au)
  5. di_atified  (s, ss)



Do tests for continuous assessment nos 1 (1 – 10) and 2(1-5), page 155 of Effective English Bk3

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