Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Junior Secondary School 3


SUBJECT: CIVIC EDUCATION                                     



REFERENCE : Fundamentals of Civic Education For Basic 9, JSS 3 by Sola Akinyemi.





Election can be defined as an act or process of voting for a candidate to represent the people of a country in various government positions. It is also defined as a process of choosing our political leaders. Examples of political office holders or leaders are President, Governors, Members of the houses of Senate and Representatives, Chairman and Counsellors of Local Government Areas. Election is a procedure that allows citizens of a country to choose their leaders or representatives.


Types of Elections

  1. Direct election.
  2. Indirect election.
  3. By – election.
  4. Run – off election.
  5. Primary election.
  • Direct Elections: Direct Elections involve the electorates (voters) casting their votes directly in an election for candidates of their choice that will represent them in various government positions.
  • Indirect Elections: This system involves the formation of an electoral college by the legislators. The members of the Electoral College will vote for the candidates of their choice onbehalfof the citizens of the country.

The Americans elect the president through Electoral College. 

  • By – Elections: This is an election that takes place to fill a vacant elective post as a result of disqualification, death or resignation of the individual holding a public office. The election takes place in that constituency where there has been a vacancy.
  • Run – off Elections: When none of the candidates wins the election by absolute majority in a general election, another election would be conducted. In this final election, only the candidates with the highest votes are allowed to contest.
  • Primary Election: This involves the political parties presenting candidates for any election in a country. It is an election conducted within a political party to choose candidates that can adequately represent the interests of the party in an election.



  1. List and explain the various types of elections.
  2. Define elections.
  3. Mention three political office holders.


General Evaluation / Revision Questions

  1. Define constitution.
  2. Differentiate between written and unwritten constitutions.
  3. Differentiate between rigid and flexible constitution.
  4. Give three importance of constitution.
  5. Explain federal and unitary constitutions.



  1. All these are attributes of a courageous person EXCEPT …….. A. boldness  B. firmness  C. laziness          D. commitment
  2. One of these is the last hope of the common man. A. The Executive   B. The Judiciary  C. The Press  D. The Police
  3. The Federal Executive Council in Nigeria is headed by the……. A. Head of the service of the federation    B. President of the federation   C. Secretary to the government      D. Senate President
  4. ………is an election in which the voters directly vote for their candidates.  A. Primary election  B. Bye- election  C. Direct Election  D. General election
  5. Where did democracy originate from? A. America   B. Nigeria    C. Greece   D. Asia
  6. A body of ideas and rules that regulate the conduct of people is …….. A. norms  B. values  C. laws  D. trust
  7. One of the steps for the protection of human rights is ……… A. good military government  B. independence of the judiciary C. clamp down on the press  D. none of the above
  8. Which of these is NOT an attribute of contentment? A. Satisfaction B. Discipline  C. Envy   D. Honesty
  9. ………. is the bedrock of democracy? A. Children   B. People  C. The Police  D. Army
  10. The primary function of the executive is to …….…. A. interpret law    B. make law C. punish law breakers    D. implement government policies.


Reading Assignment

Fundamentals of Civic Education Book 3 by Sola AkinyemiPages 38 – 40. 


Weekend Assignment

  1. Election conducted within a political party to choose candidates that will represent the interests of the party in a general election is called A. Primary election B. by – election C. run – off election D. direct election.
  2. Election conducted to fill a vacant elective post as a result of death or resignation of the individual holding a public office is called A. Primary election B. run – off election C. direct election D. by – election.
  3. All the following are political office holders in Nigeria except A. President B. Banker C. Governor D. Senator.
  4. How many geo – political zones do we have in Nigeria? A. five B. ten C. six D. four.
  5. Which geo – political zone in Nigeria has the least number of states? A. South West B. South – East C. South – South D. North – East.



  1. Define election.
  2. Mention five types of elections.


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