Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Junior Secondary School 3

Factors of production

Date: 9th – 20th of January 2023

Class: JSS 3

Term: 2nd Term

Week: 1&2

Subject: Agricultural Science

Topic: Factors of Production

Duration:45 minutes

Teaching Aid: A chart

Reference Book: WABP Junior secondary Agriculture for Nigerian School 1 by Anthony Youdeowei et al

Behavioural Objectives: By the end of this topic, students should be able to

  1. Define production
  2. Discuss the factors of production and their characteristics

Presentation I

Step 1: Teacher revises last topic

Step 2: Teacher introduces and explains new topic

Step 3: Teacher writes note on the board

Step 4: Teacher evaluates students

Step 5: Teacher marks students' notes and give assignment

Previous knowledge: Students have been taught



Production is all economic activities which result in the creation of goods and services or converting raw materials into finished goods. For goods and services to be created during the process of production, certain factors have to come together; these factors are known as Factors of production

They include






Land is where productive activities such as rearing of animals, growing of crops and erection of farm structures/ buildings are carried out.

Characteristics of land

  1. Land is immobile
  2. It can appreciate or depreciate in value
  3. Land is abundant in some areas and scarce in other areas
  4. It can be used as collateral for loan
  5. It influences output
  6. Reward for land is rent


Labour includes all forms of productive human effort put or used in production. It is man’s mental and physical effort put into the process of production

Characteristics of labour

  1. Labour is mobile
  2. Labour has feelings and can’t be used anyhow
  3. Its output can be improved by training
  4. The size and quality influences output
  5. The unit of labour is man-hours or man-days
  6. Reward for labour is wages and salaries


Capital includes all man-made productive asstes which are used in production

Characteristics of capital

  1. It can depreciate or appreciate
  2. It’s used to acquire all other factors of production
  3. Capital include money, farm inputs,farm buildings etc
  4. Reward for capital is interest


It is the person Orr persons who combine other factors of production to produce goods and services.

Characteristics of entrepreneur

  1. It involves the skills of an individual or persons
  2. It controls other factors of production
  3. It determines the level of wages
  4. The quality of entrepreneur influences output
  5. Reward is profit


  1. Mention three(3) ways by which farmers acquire land
  2. List and explain the types of labour available to farmers
  3. Mention three ways farmers can source for capital
  4. Mention four importance of entrepreneur

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