SUBJECT: HOME ECONOMICS
CLASS: JSS 2
TERM: 3rd TERM
- HOME ECONOMICS NEW CONCEPT BOOK 2 BY POPOOLA O.O.
- HOME ECONOMICS FOR JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS 1-3 BY ELIZABETHU. ANYAKOHA.
TOPIC: OPENINGS AND FASTENINGS
- Meaning and Types of openings
- Points to consider when making openings
- Meaning and types of fastenings
- Uses of fastenings
- Guidelines for attaching fastenings
Openings are features in garments. They help us to wear and take off a garment.
TYPES OF OPENINGS
1.Continuous strip opening: It is also called continuous wrap opening. Continuous strip opening is suitable for:
- Very fine and light material of fabrics.
- Side openings of shorts and skirts.
- Wrist openings on long sleeves.
- Neck openings of blouses and dresses.
Continuous wrap openings can be fastened with hook and eye, button and button holes and press studs.
2.Faced slit opening: A faced slit opening is formed by slitting the opening after it has been stitched to a facing. The opening is not overlapping and can only be fastened with buttons and loops or ribbons, hook and eye and eyelets and cords.
The face slit opening can be used for:
- Front or back openings.
- It can also be used for decoration.
- Bound opening: A bound opening is a slit opening neatened with crossway binding or commercial bias binding. The binding should be narrow, of even width and not twisted. When closed, a bound opening does not overlap and the fastenings are sewn only at the top of the opening and not along either sides of it.
Bound opening is suitable for:
- The front and the back opening of children’s garments.
- Transparent materials/fabrics especially when contrasting colours are used.
- Define the word ‘Openings’.
- List and explain types of openings.
USES OF OPENINGS
- Openings can be used to decorate the garments.
- Openings allow for easy wearing and removal of garments.
- Openings are necessary in garment which fit the figure closely at certain part e.g. neck, wrist, waist etc.
POINTS TO CONSIDER WHEN MAKING OPENINGS
- The opening should be suitable for the position on the garment.
- It should be suitable for the texture of the fabric e.g. continuous wrap opening for light materials.
- It should be long enough to serve its purpose.
- It should be placed in position where it will be easy to fasten.
- The two sides of the opening should be equal.
- The opening should lie flat when fastened.
- The seams of the openings should be strong especially at the base to avoid tear.
- It should also be as neat and invisible as possible.
- State three points to consider when making openings.
- State two uses of opening.
Fastenings are devises or things attached to the openings. They allow garments to be put on and taken off.
TYPES OF FASTENINGS
- Buttons and button holes: They can be used on openings with a wrap.
- Buttons and loops: These are used on openings without a wrap.
- Press studs: They are used where there is less strain.
- Hooks and eyes / bars: These are used where there is strain, to prevent gaping. It can also be used to fasten the end of a neck opening or together with zips.
- Zips: They are used on blouses, dresses, trousers, skirts, etc.
- Velcro: This is a nylon ‘touch and close’ fastening made up of two strips which cling together because the surface of one is covered with strip of small nylon hooks and another of soft piled nylon. It is mostly used on foot wears but can also be used on dresses to close up openings.
- Eyelets and cords: These are used to fasten faced slit openings on blouses and children’ dresses.
- What are fastenings?
- List and explain three types of fastenings.
USES OF FASTENINGS
- It allows the garment to be put on and to be taken off like opening.
- They keep the opening in position whilst the garment is being worn.
- Fastenings can be used for decoration
- They protect the openings from stretching.
POINTS TO CONSIDER IN CHOOSING FASTENINGS
- The type of opening to be fastened.
- The type of fabric, that is whether light or thick.
- The use of the fastening.
- The style of the garment, that is, whether to be visible or not.
- The part of the garment to be fastened.
- The fastening should match the garment in colour.
- The fastenings must also be washable and colour-fast.
- Mention two uses of fastenings.
- State three points in choosing fastenings.
GUIDELINES FOR ATTACHING FASTENINGS
- Sew fastenings directly opposite each other, so that opening will be flat when fastened.
- Attach sufficient number of fastenings, so that opening does not gape open when garment is worn.
- Sew the fastening after the opening has been finished and pressed.
- Make fastenings invisible unless they are used as part of the garment decoration.
- Sew fastening on doubled thickness of material.
GENERAL EVALUATION QUESTIONS
- State two uses each of fastening and openings.
- State the relationship between the two.
- Outline three guidelines for attaching fastenings.
- Define kitchen hygiene.
- Mention five factors that influence the selection of household linen.
Openings and fastening: Home Economics for JSS 1-3 by Anyakoha. Pages 292-298
Junior Secondary Home Economics book 3 by Oseni. Pages 37-43
Home Economics New Concepts book 2 by Popoola. Pages 187-197
- ____ helpsus to put on and take off our clothes. A. Openings B. Hemming C. Stitching D. Hook.
- ____ is not a type of opening. A. Continuous wrap B. Bound C. Faced slit D. Press stub.
- ____ is not a type of fastening. A. Button and button hole B. Press stud C. Facedslit D. Hook and eye.
- Openings are put on a garment to ____ A. neaten the edgeB. make it easy to wearC. enhance the area D. tear the dress’ back
- The edges of a faced opening ____ A. meetB. overlapC. cross D. extend
- List six types of fastening.
- Explain two uses of openings.