SUBJECT:��HOME ECONOMICS � ���
TERM: 3RD TERM
- HOME ECONOMICS NEW CONCEPT BOOK 2 BY POPOOLA O.O.
- HOME ECONOMICS FOR JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS 1-3 BY ELIZABETHU. ANYAKOHA.
TOPIC: PURCHASING, PROCESSING, PRESERVATION AND SAFETY
- Food Preservation and Storage
- Meaning of Food Preservation
- Reasons for Food Preservation
- Food Preservation Methods
- Meaning of Food Storage
- Types of Food for Storage
Food preservation is the caring for or treating food in such a way that it will keep in good condition for a long period of time.It can also be defined as the practice of keeping food for a long time before it is being used. Thisis done to keep the food as near to the fresh state as possible. A preserved food can be stored for a longer period than a raw food.
Food preservation can be done by:
- Changing the form of the food to another through processing and keeping them in specially designed container.
- Adding other substances.
REASONS FOR PRESERVING FOODS
- To preserve seasonal foods in and out of season especially fruits and vegetables.
- To prevent scarcity.
- To prevent food spoilage.
- � To eliminate the purchase of foods when they are most expensive.
- � To have a variety of foods available.
- � What is food preservation?
- � State three reasons for preserving foods.
FOOD PRESERVATION METHODS
We have different methods of food preservation based on:
- The nature of the food to be preserved.
- The length of preservation period required.
- The dish to be prepared with the food.
The common ones are:
- � DRYING: This is the process by which water content of food is removed. It is an effective way of preserving some vegetables, maize, beans, cassava chips, etc.
- � SMOKING:Foods like fish, meat, and root crops can be preserved by smoking. In some cases, the smoked food items are later subjected to solar or sun drying.
- � FREEZING:� This is the process of keeping food at low temperature below 0�c in the upper part of refrigerator or in the freezer. Perishable foods are best preserved using this method. The food items get frozen thereby preventing spoilage.
- � CANNING:� This is a method of preserving foods by sealing them in an air tight container and applying heat.Foods such as baked beans, sweet corn, etc. are preserved by this method.
- � FERMENTATION: This is the process of decomposing some food components to produce acids. The acids so produced will reduce the pᴴof the food and hence makes the food unfavourable to microorganisms.Examples of such foods are locust bean seed, yoghurts, wine, etc.
- � USE OF CHEMICALS:� Some chemicals such as vinegar, salt ,sugar, etc. are added to food to inhibit the action of enzyme, prevent chemical reaction to take place in food all in an attempt to create unfavourable condition for micro- organisms.
- � List and explain any three methods of preservation.
- � State two factors that determine the preservation methods used for a particular food.
Storage of food is the act of keeping processed and unprocessed food at home for future use. It involves keeping preserved or purchased food in safe condition and suitable facility till when needed. Foods that are not properly stored may become useless within short period of time. Therefore it is necessary to store food correctly so that it will last long and remain in good condition.
Importance of Proper Storage of Food
- � It prevents food from spoilage.
- � It prevents loss of food nutrients.
- � It helps the homemakerto save money.
- � It saves time and energy of going to the market always.
CLASSIFICATION OF FOODS FOR STORAGE
- � NON PERISHABLE FOODS/ DRY FOODS:These are foods that can keep well for a reasonable length of time. They do not spoil easily and they contain lesser percentage of moisture. They can be kept for long time without getting spoilt. Examples areflour, beans, sugar, yam, dried maize, etc. Non-perishable foods can be kept in air tight containers.
Important Points on Storage of Non-Perishable Foods
- a)� Store only foods that are free from weevils and other insects.
- b)� Store food in dry and well covered containers.
- c)� Foods such as beans, maize, etc. can be stored for very long periods in air-tight plastic containers.
- � PERISHABLE FOODS:� Theseare foods that spoil very fast as a result of the high moisture content. Such foods include tomatoes, fresh fish, fresh meats, fresh fruits, eggs, vegetables, etc. Perishable foods are stored in the refrigerators.
Important points on Storage of Perishable Foods
- a)� Fresh meat and fish can be stored in the freezer.
- b)� Fruits and vegetables can be stored at the lowest part of the refrigerator.
- c)� Prolonged storage of fruits and vegetables in the refrigerator can cause some of them to lose their taste, colours and nutritive values.
- d)� Perishable foods can also be processed into forms that can store for fairly long periods. For example, vegetables can be dried while fish and meat can be smoked.
- � State three importance of food storage.
- � Differentiate between perishable and non-perishable foods with examples.
TYPES AND CARE OF FOOD STORAGE FACILITIES IN THE HOME
- � Plastic container with cover:Wash thoroughly,rinse very well and label correctly.
- � Food rack, shelves, cabinet or cupboard:� Clean thoroughly, empty the cupboard and clean according type.
- � Freezer\Refrigerator: Unplug before cleaning.Clean occasionally with drops of vinegar.
- � Food store:� Arrange food items and containers properly. Clean the store very thoroughly once every week.
GENERAL EVALUATION QUESTIONS
- � State three reasons for preserving foods
- � What is food preservation?
- Differentiate between perishable and non-perishable foods withfour examples each.
- � What is food storage?
- � Differentiate between food storage and food preservation.
Preservation and Storage of food:� Home Economics for JSS 1-3 by Anyakoha. Pages 318-320.
- � Changing the form of the food to another through processing is another ways of ____ foods.
- purchasing B. preserving C. storing D. cooking
- � ____ is the process by which water content of food is removed. A. Smoking B.Drying C. Freezing D.Fermentation
- � ____ is the act of keeping processed or unprocessed food at home.A.Food preservation B.Food storage C.Food Safe D.Food keeping
- � Which of the following foods is perishable? A. Rice B. Beans C. Meat D. Flours
- � Maize can be stored for very long periods in ____ plastic containers. A. air-tight B. coloured
- thickD. light-weight
- � Explain the following: (a) Perishable food(b) Non-perishable food
- � List two food storage facilities and state one way of taken care of each.