SUBJECT: BASIC SCIENCE
TERM: 3RD TERM
DRUGS are Natural or synthetic substance which (when taken into a living body) affects its functioning or structure, and is used in the diagnosis, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of a disease or relief of discomfort.
Meaning of drug Abuse
habitual use of drugs not needed for therapeutic purposes, solely to alter one's mood, affect, or state of consciousness, or to affect a body function unnecessarily (as in laxative abuse). the use of a drug for a non therapeutic effect. Some of the most commonly abused drugs are alcohol; nicotine; marijuana; amphetamines; barbiturates; cocaine; methaqualone; opium alkaloids; synthetic opioids; benzodiazepines, COCAINE, HEROIN, MARIJUANA.
Habitual use of drugs not needed for therapeutic purposes (e.g., such as solely to alter one's mood, affect, or state of consciousness) or to affect a body function unnecessarily (e.g., laxative abuse); nonmedical use of drugs.
Five Methods of Drug Abuse
In order for drugs to affect the brain they must first be put into the body. There are five methods of drug use which allow drugs to enter the body: swallowing, smoking, snorting, through suppositories and injecting.
Ingesting or swallowing drugs is the most common method of drug use. The individual takes the drugs by mouth. The drugs pass to the stomach and then into the bloodstream. Of all the methods of drug abuse, taking drugs by mouth is considered to be one of the safest methods because it allows the body time to absorb the drug and the digestive system will self induce vomiting as a defense mechanism to ingesting something that does not agree with it.
This method gets the drugs into the body’s system a bit faster than swallowing the drugs because the smoke goes into the lungs where it quickly moves into the bloodstream. The most common drugs that are smoked are marijuana, heroin, crack and opium. Individuals who smoke drugs are at risk for cancer of the mouth, throat and lung; heart disease and cardiac arrest, stroke, emphysema and bronchitis, pneumonia and other pulmonary disorders and hypertension.
Some individuals snort drugs such as ecstasy, cocaine, heroin and amphetamines. Drugs enter into the bloodstream through the nasal mucus membranes and through the stomach. Individuals snorting drugs will experience the drug sensation within about 15 minutes after snorting their drugs. There are a number of complications from snorting drugs including the deterioration of the lining of the nasal cavity and the septum. Sharing straws and other items to snort the drugs can lead to hepatitis C and HIV.
Drugs entered into the body through suppositories will be delivered into the bloodstream through the rectum’s mucus membrane. While this is not a common method of drug abuse, drugs that have been taken using this method are cocaine, speed and ecstasy. The mucus membranes in the rectum are sensitive. Certain drugs may have a high level of acidity and can cause the lining to be permanently damaged. There is also a risk of perforating the lower colon which can be fatal.
Injecting drugs is the fastest method for experiencing the high from drug use because it puts the drug directly into the bloodstream. Drugs can be injected into the soft tissue, into the muscle or directly into the vein. Individuals who inject drugs will experience the high within 3 to 5 seconds (immediately). This method of drug delivery goes directly to the brain, escaping the body’s natural defense mechanisms including the digestive system. The dangers that come with injecting drugs include infection at the site of injection. There is also the risk that sharing needles have including HIV and hepatitis. Some individuals may experience collapsing veins and arterial damage which can lead to gangrene, thrombosis and hemorrhaging.
Ways on How People Misuse Drugs
Social Risk factor in drug abuse
Deviant Peer Relationships
The influence of peers on adolescent substance use often exists in the form of deviant peer relationships, wherein an adolescent associates with a group of people who use substances, or in the form of perceived popularity. Peer relationships are positively associated with adolescent substance use. It is possible that a shared inclination to use drugs and alcohol attracts deviant individuals to form peer groups or that, in order to gain social standing or join a group, individuals are motivated to use substances and thus form a deviant peer group.
Entry into deviant peer groups has also been shown to be significantly associated with negative parent-child relationships, which can cause adolescents to seek deviant connections in their social sphere. Conversely, parental involvement and respect for parents have been negatively associated with substance use. This is consistent with the aforementioned findings regarding positive parent-child relationships as a protective factor. This is an example of a way in which factors from familial and social spheres may work for or against each other in leading to adolescent substance use
Precious seed BASIC SCIENCE FOR JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS BOOK 2 pages 15-18
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