Lesson Notes By Weeks and Term - Junior Secondary School 2

Science Technology and Society II






  1. SolakatNew Syllabus on Social Studies for Junior Secondary Schools Books 2 by Oluwasola Oyewole
  2. Macmillan Social Studies Book 2 by M.A Oyebanjo, I.O Osokota, R. Acholomu Ayodele Jegede, Ibrahim Bello.




TOPIC: Science Technology and Society II

PERIOD I:  Types of Traditional Science and Technology


Traditional societies refer to the various communities that were in existence in Nigeria before the coming of the British people to Nigeria.


Characteristics of the Traditional Society

  1. It was agrarian in nature. This means that they were farmers,hunters and fishermen
  2. Most of their works were done by hands.

There were no machines in the traditional societies.

  1. People in the traditional societies did not know how to read and write. It was largely an illiterate society.
  2. People in the traditional societies had certain superstitious beliefs about the world.


Types of Traditional Science And Technology

  1. The art of smelting iron ore. They discovered iron ore, smelted itand made various tools such as cutlass, axe, hoe, and arrows.

The people of Awkain Anambrastate are known as iron smelters.

  1. They discovered fire by striking stones.
  2. They used clay to make pots.
  3. Timber was used to make canoes and boats.
  4. They discovered herbs used in curing diseases and sicknesses.
  5. They preserved food by using salt and smoking.
  6. Animals such as donkey, horses and camels were used as means of transportation.
  7. The people in traditional societies also identified roots, fruits and vegetables that were edible.


Advantages of African traditional Science and Technology

  1. It has been used to provide the need of the society.
  2. It conforms with cultural norms, custom, traditions and practices in the society.
  3. It suits the economic conditions of the people. i.e use of local materials like herbs.
  4. The knowledge is passed from one generation to another
  5. It has a wide application in agriculture, construction of house, family life, religion and medicine.


Advantages of African traditional Science and Technology

  1. The knowledge is not recorded or documented and so they are gradually forgotten
  2. It cannot be scientifically explained because it deals with invisible ideas. E.g invocation, magic etc.
  3. African technology is gradually phasing out due to modern science and technology.



  1. Define traditional society.
  2. Identify the characteristics of traditional societies.
  3. Mention the types of traditional science and technology.



TOPIC: Some Traditional Science and Technology Influenced by Modernization.


  1. Transportation: Human beings no longer treck long distances. People are not using animals such as horses and camels to embark on long journeys.

The use of modern means of transportation such as cars, trains, ships and aeroplanes have taken over.

  1. Cooking utensils: Traditional ones such as clay pots, grinding stones etc have been replaced by modern ones.
  2. Modern musical instruments such as engines, microphones, drums etc are now used and they produce melodious tunes.
  3. Canoes are no longer paddled manually but with the use of engines.




  • How has modernization influenced traditional science and technology?
  • Differentiate between traditional science and technology and modern science and technology





  • Mention three names different communities in Nigeria call their God.
  • Identify five benefits of religious institutions.
  • Give the five pillars of Islam.
  • What are the purposes of marriage?
  • Explain the following: i. Monogamy  ii. Polygamy  iii. Polyandry.




Macmillan Social Studies Book 2 by M.A. Orebanjo, I.O. Osokoyaet. alPages 42 – 45.



  1. The people of Awka in Anambra state are known for A. Iron smelting B. Making canoes C. Producing cars D. Making pots
  2. The people in traditional societies preserved food by using A. Oil B. Water C. Salt D. Refrigerator
  3. __________ is used to make canoes and boats A. Clay B. Timber C. Cotton D. Iron
  4. One of the following is not a characteristics of traditional societies A.It was agrarian in nature B. Most of the works were done by hands C. It was an illiterate society D. Most of the works were done with the use machines.
  5. Which of the following animals was used as means of transportation in the traditional societies?
  1. Dog B. Goat C. Cow D. Camel




  • Mention five types of traditional science and technology.


  1. How has modernization influenced some traditional science and technology?

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