SUBJECT: BASIC SCIENCE
TERM: 3RD TERM
Genetic counseling may be described as the process through which individuals affected by, or at risk for a problem which may be genetic or hereditary, are informed of the consequences of the disorder, of the probability of suffering from or of transmitting it to their offspring, and of the potential means of treating or of avoiding the occurrence of the malformation or disease in question. " Genetic " does not necessarily mean " hereditary ". The first term implies simply that the genetic material, on a chromosomal or a gene level, contains one or more mutations which are the cause of the disorder. Once a mutation is present in a patient, particularly if it is constitutional (and thus present in all cells), it can of course be transmitted and thus becomes a hereditary disorder.
Four aspects involved in giving genetic counseling
IMPORTANCE OF GENETIC COUNSELLING BEFORE MARRIAGE
Breastfeeding and its importance
MYTHS ABOUT BREASTFEEDING
Fact: Because breast milk is so easy to digest, babies generally get hungrier sooner than if they are formula-fed. It's appropriate for your breastfeeding newborn baby to eat every two to three hours.
Fact: The more you nurse, the more milk you make. Breaking your regular nursing schedule to "rest" the breast actually may decrease your milk supply.
This myth got started, she says, because skipping a feeding or pumping during the day results in greater supply of milk at night. But by the next day you will have less milk if you skip a feeding. "The only way to ensure a steady supply is to keep expressing milk as regularly as you can. You should nurse at least nine to 10 times a day to ensure milk production.
Fact: Research indicates that babies fed on formula do not sleep better, although they may sleep longer. "Because bottle milk doesn't get digested as quickly, it may be a longer stretch between feedings so your baby may sleep longer.
Breastfed babies typically start sleeping longer at 4 weeks old and soon are sleeping the same amount of time as formula-fed babies.
Fact: Babies suck on a nipple, but suckle at the breast. The difference between the two actions rarely will confuse your little one. If you think you need to supplement your baby's feedings (particularly if you plan to return to work before you finish nursing), then you should introduce baby to a bottle between 2 to 6 weeks of age.
Use it for one or two feedings a day. Your baby will develop the skills necessary to bottle feed without losing the ability to feed at the breast. Use your own milk when trying the bottle, and hold your baby close to your body to cuddle. It's the bonding time that matters almost as much as the actual feeding.
Fact: While pregnancy does somewhat alter the look and feel of your breasts, experts say breastfeeding does not cause any changes beyond that.
In fact, "breastfeeding can actually help protect your breasts. women who breastfeed have a reduced risk of breast cancer later in life.
Fact: Most of the time your baby will wake you -- and be ready to eat -- every two-and-a-half to three hours. However, your baby may feed vigorously for two or three hours -- known as "cluster feedings" -- then sleep a longer than usual.
"It's okay to let them sleep a little longer than usual, but you should never have more than one four-and-a-half-hour period of sleeping per day. If your baby is regularly sleeping through feeding time, wake baby when it's time to eat. It's important for your baby to feed on schedule, and you need to express milk on schedule to keep up a good supply.
Fact: Judging by the number of families with babies born 10 months apart, it's clear that breastfeeding isn't guaranteed birth control. However, experts do believe breastfeeding is 98% effective -- similar to other forms of birth control. experts say hormones involved in breastfeeding prevent ovulation, thereby blocking your ability to conceive for up to 14 or 15 months following delivery.
Precious seed BASIC SCIENCE FOR JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS BOOK 2
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