SUBJECT: HOME ECONOMICS
CLASS: JSS 2
TERM: 2nd TERM
- HOME ECONOMICS FOR JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS 1-3 BY ELIZABETH U. ANYAKOHA.
- HOME ECONOMICS NEW CONCEPT BOOK 2 BY POPOOLA O.O.
WEEK EIGHT AND NINE
TOPIC: ARRANGEMENT OF FULLNESS
FOR WEEKS EIGHT AND NINE
- Meaning of arrangement of fullness
- Types of fullness in garments
ARRANGEMENT OF FULLNESS
Fullness in clothing construction means the provision of extra allowance in the garment. One of the first things to be done in making up a garment is to arrange the fullness. Fullness can be introduced in a garment by the following processes: gathers, darts, tucks and pleats.
Gathers are small, soft folds made in garments. Gathering is one of the easiest and best ways of controlling fullness. It may be worked by hand or machine. Gathers are commonly used in:
- Children’s clothes
- Making lightweight skirts, etc.
The effectiveness of gathers depends on the following:
- Choosing fine and soft material to gather e.g. cottons, silks rayon and fine woolens.
- Having the right quantity of material to gather up.
- Setting in the gathers very evenly.
- Allow up to twice the width of the material for gathering as required for finished width.
- Thread the needle and hold the fabric in place.
- Start with a back stitch and make the first row of running stitch above the stitching lines.
- Make a second roll of running stitches below the stitching line. The first gathering stitches will be the same as the second gathering stitches.
- Pull both lines of gathering stitches up together to the required length and fasten off.
- The gathered material ready for sewing.
This is produced with several rows of gatherings. It may be decorated with smocking or other embroidery
- What is fullness in clothing construction?
- State two uses of gathers.
Darts are small tapered folds of fabric. They are stitched on the wrong side of a garment section. Darts can be
Straight, curved or double pointed.
Darts are used to:
- Control fullness
- Turn fabric into shapes to fit the human figure
- Give a good fitting and shape to the finished garment.
How to make a dart
- Mark pattern lines for darts with a tailors chalk or tailor’s tack.
- Fold the material from the wrong side along the pattern lines.
- Pin and tack the dart on the pattern lines.
- Stitch from the broad end towards the narrow point bringing the stitching right to the fold.
- Knot the end of threads together at the narrow point.
- Press the dart to one side of the stitching. If the material is too fat to lie really flat, cut the fold.
- Open the turnings.
- Neaten the edges with blanket stitches.
Tucks are small stitches folds in garments. They may be of different widths. The fold is formed on the right side of the garment. They take up three times the finished width of material. They may be worked on straight grains or in any direction of the material.
Tucks are useful in the following ways:
- For decoration e.g. pin tucks in front bodice.
- They can be used to introduce shape on a blouse.
- To reduce or control fullness
- To provide extra width
- Fold along required line and stitch very close to fold.
- Stitch down to secure a strong finish.
- Turn tucks to the direction desired according to the finished effect required and press.
A pleat is a fold of material designed to give extra width in garments. It is very popular because it is smart and liked by people. It is usually done on medium weight fabrics. Pleats are used mainly on tailored skirts, dress skirts and shorts giving fullness in wear. There are many kinds of pleats such as the knife pleat, box pleat, inverted pleats and
accordion pleats. Pleats are formed by three layers of materials.
Types of pleat
- a) Knife Pleat: One single pleat is called a knife pleat. For knife pleats, the several pleats are facing the same direction. The width of the pleats may be wide or narrow depending on the style.
- b) Box Pleats: This is made when two knife pleats turn away from each other; the folds of the pleats meet on the wrong side.
- c) Inverted Pleats: This is made when two knife pleats turn towards each other and the folds meet on the right side.
METHOD OF WORKING PLEATS
- Working from the right side, fold the material on the fold line. Pin and tack fold separately.
- Place the fold against the next line marked on the right side and pin it down flat.
- Baste (i.e. to sew with long stitches) through the centre of the pleats.
- Press the pleats thoroughly.
- State three uses of tucks on garments.
- Define darts.
Smocking is a decorative form of reducing fullness. It provides for elasticity and ease of movement. The allowance of fabric required is usually four times the finished width of smocking. Smocking is very nice on babies’ dresses.
This is the arrangement of slightly amount of fullness so that no gather or pleat shows where the fullness is set in. Easing is used at the head of a plain sleeve.
GENERAL EVALUATION QUESTIONS
- State three uses of darts.
- List and explain types of darts.
- Explain the process of making gathers
- List and explain types of stitches.
- State five reasons for wearing clothes.
Arrangement of Fullness: Home Economics for JSS 1-3 by Anyakoha. Pages 290-292
Home Economics New Concept book 3 by Popoola. Pages 155-160.
- The extra allowance provided in a garment is called _____ A. filling B. free size C. extra large D. fullness
- Which of the following is not used to create or control fullness in garments? A. Darts B. Tucks C. Bias D. Pleats
- The tapered folds of fabric stitched on the wrong side of a garment is called ____ A. fullness B. dart C. ease
- Which of the following is made up of small soft folds? A. Gathers B. Binding C. Shirring D. Dart
- _________ is produced with several rows of gatherings.A. Shirring B. Bias C. Dart D. Pleats
- List and explain types of pleats.
- State two uses of tucks.